Skip to main content

Full text of "The Atlas handbook on concrete construction."

See other formats












M 










ATLAS HANDBOOK 



on 



CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 




The Atlas Portland Cement Company 

25 Broadway. New V„ rk , N . y. 409 N -^ ^ fc ^ ^ 

Boston Albany Philadelphia Chicago Des Moin M 

Omaha Kansas City Oklahoma City 

W aco Birmingham 



FOREWORD TO EARLY EDITIONS 

THE purpose of "The Atlas Handbook on Concrete Con 
struction" is to provide, in convenient form, practical 
information on concrete — both plain and reinforced. It is 
written from the practical rather than the technical standpoint 
for the average builder in concrete. 

Realizing the impossibility of giving in a book of this size 
detailed information about building many different structures, 
we have covered in considerable detail, the subjects of concrete 
reinforced concrete, and forms, in Chapters I, II and III. The 
builder will be able to adapt this information to the particular 
work to be handled. 



FOREWORD TO REVISED AND ENLARGED 

EDITION— 1927 

In this edition various parts of the text have I q brought 
up to date; the number of estimating tables has been incr< 
and a chapter on the uses and manipuhn ion of Ai lj I umnii 
Cement has been added. 

Further information will be gladly furnished. The Techni- 
cal Department, consisting of a staff of trained engineers i 
maintained for the purpose of cooperating with builders h 
concrete. 

You are under no obligation for this service. The compani 
furnishes th book and the information and assistance referred 
to above, without guaranty, v rrant or other obligation on its 
part. 

THE ATLAS PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY 



Copyright 1' U1922 7 

B 3 

THE ATL/ PC D < \ll I COMPANY 

New ^ ork City 

Rl ID AND J UUJED 27 

I E $2.00 

di 



^ 



CHAPTER I 



CONCRETE— THE MODERN 
CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL 

Upon the builder often rests the responsibility for choosing 
the type of construction as well as for the proper execution of 
the work. His advice is sought as to what material is best 
fitted for the work in hand. 

The builder who is looking toward future business, has a 
sincere desire to serve the owner's interest in selecting the 
construction which will give best service. Therefore the owner 
should b* informed of the following outstanding advantages 
of concrete: 

Concrete is fire resistant. — It successfully resists severe 
conflagrations — it cannot burn. When used for buildings, it 
affords protection against loss of life as well as property. 

Concrete is permanent, — It does not rot or decay; there- 
fore it requires no repairs and does not involve expense for 
painting or other upkeep. 

Concrete is strong — and grows stronger with age. This 
means: 

(1) Great load carrying capacity. Reinforced concrete struc- 
tures have been designed for the heaviest of loads. 

(2) Long spans which allow maximum window space with 
good lighting. Window area in concrete buildings is 
normally 50 to 85% greater than in other types. 

(3) Resistance against vibration. No other type of construc- 
tion equals reinforced concrete in rigidity. 

Concrete is reasonable in cost. — It compares favorably 
with other forms of construction in original cost, representing 

(1) 



2 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



lowest cost as compared not only with fireproof building-, but 
likewise with mill construction generally. In final cost con- 
crete easily excels, for little or nothing is added to the original 
cost because of repairs or maintenance charges. 

Concrete means quick construction. — Details of de- 
signs are simple and the designs are quickly turned out. Cement 
and reinforcing steel can be obtained from stock with no 
waiting for materials. Sand, pebbles and crushed stone which 
form the bulk of concrete are usually obtained locally. 

Concrete meets architectural and engineering re- 
quirements, satisfying all demands as to appearance, utility 
and economy. 

SELECTION OF MATERIALS 

The quality of concrete depends upon the materials used, 
the manner in which they are used, and the way in which the 
concrete is treated after it is made. The best concrete results 
only from careful selection and proportioning of materials, 
proper mixing and placing, and thorough curing. 



Cement 

The only scientifically made ingredient of concrete is the 
cement. The other materials — sand, pebbles or crushed Hone, 
and water — are used as they come from nature and may vary 
greatly in quality. 

Atlas Portland Cement is a carefully made, thoroughly 
;hable product, guaranteed to meet all of the requiremem 
• f the standard sp< ideations for portland cement. Its quality 
definite!} established by exhaustive i before it leaves 
the mill, It is always uniform and entirely dependable. 

The word "portland" signify only the kind of cement, 

the brand. All cemei used for important work are 

Portland; the bra 1 nam lould tl ore. always b< givei 

The 1 in- portland" was given to i ment by its discoverer, 

because oi its resem! mce, wl n hardened, to a very hard 

>ne quarried on the Isle of Portland near England. 



1 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



:; 



\ barrel of cement weighs 376 pounds net and equals four 
hags of 94 pounds each, each bag containing approximately 
one cubic foot. Cement is generally shipped in cloth or paper 
bags, sometimes in bulk on large jobs, and for export in wooden 

barrels. 




n 



ATLAS PORTLAND CEMENT 

The Standard bv which other makes are measured 



* » 



AGGREGATES 

The inert materials, such as sand, pebbles or crushed stone, 
mixed with the cement to make concrete, are called ^aggre 

and 



"coarse." 



gates. Aggregates are classified as "fine 

Fine aggregate is sand or stone screenings which will 
pass through a screen with one-quarter inch openings 

Coarse aggregate is commonly pebbles or crushed stone 
retained on a screen with one-quarter inch openings, the 
maximum size of pebbles or pieces of stone depends upon the 
character of the work, and usually ranges from three-quarters 
of an inch to three inches. 

Sand— (Fine Aggregate) 

Too much care cannot be used in selecting a good fine 
aggregate. It should consist of clean, natural sand or screen- 
ings from hard, durable crushed stone. It should be com- 
posed of quartz grains or other hard material, running in size 

from fine to coarse. 

Sand must be clean, otherwise the quality of the concrete 
will suffer. The impurities that occur in sand are loam, clay, 



4 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



mica and organic matter. Sand containing more than 3% 
(by weight) of loam or clay should not be used unless washed. 
Loam can be determined as described below. Mica is very 
injurious if it occurs to the extent of over 1%. 

By organic matter is meant sewage, vegetable matter, 
tanmc acid, manure and other substances of this kind all of 
which are very objectionable. Organic impurities can be 
determined as described below. Sand containing these im- 
purities but meeting requirements of good sand in other 
respects, can sometimes be used if washed, page 5. 

In some sections where a sandy soil prevails, builders fre- 
quently use in concrete the sand obtained from the cellar 
excavation. This practice cannot be too strongly condemned. 
band obtained in this way comes from a point at the most 
five or six feet below ground surface and hence likely to be 
contaminated by organic impurities from the layer of vege- 
tation at the surface. A costly failure of concrete from the 
use of such sand may amount to many times the fancied saving 
on the cost of securing good sand. 

A well-graded sand is better than either a fine or a coarse 
because it will make a stronger and denser concrete. Fine 
sand of uniform grain, such as beach sand, is not desirable for 
concrete. Sand should be graded, i. e., the particles vary in 
size from fane to coarse with the larger \ rticles predominating. 

How to Determine the Amount of Loam 

Use * Pint bottle and put in sand to the height of four 
inche then fill the bottle almost full with water. Shake 
thorough -and alow to settle over night. The loam and fine 

wiU settle on the top and the thickn ss of this layer 
should not be over one-eighth of an inch. >^ Fig. l. 

How to Determine Organic Impurities* 

Fill a 12-our prescrij ion bottle with sand to the 4H- 

urj Jj;u, V J kn*W ■ •>% liKion of caustic soda know 

- sodium hydroxide (which you can buy at nearly all drug 

' J KM ,e Proceedings of the Am Rr, f,, r TW*_ w.*-,.._ 




o N CO N' C K BT E CON i i: i! < r l <>N 



stores) until the volume of sand and rfution, af ter ehaki n g , 

amounts to 7 ounces. Shake th< contents thorough^ md U fc 
stand lor 2 l hours, [f the liquid i suiting from fcfais treatment 
is colorless, or has a light yellowish color, the sand ma be 
considered satisfactory in i far as the organic impuniie 
concerned, [f there is a dark colored liquid (abo\ the sa 

it indicates that the sand con ins organ i mipuritli and 

must not be used unless these impurities ai i bed out See 
Fig. 2. 



WATER 
LOAM 

Sand 




i 






Fig. 1. — Test for determining 
Amount of loam in sand. 




3% Solution 
Caustic Soda 



7 oz. 



4$ oz. 



■ 



■ 



\ 






• 



* 



Sand 




pjg J. — Sim] met! }f 

injur 

Know u aa th< I tri( est. 



Sand Washing 

Sand which is dirty may often be made suitable for concrete 

by washing. 

A device which can be used advantageously for was g 
sand or washing and sen ning bank-run gravel on small jobs 
is shown in Fig. 3. 



Pebbles or Crushed Stone Coarse Aggregate 1 

The pebbles or crushed stone must be '.'lean, hard, tough 
and graded in size, free from ve_ ble or other organic matter 



6 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



The material should be sufficiently hard so that the strength 
of the concrete will not be limited by the strength of the 
aggregate. Fiat, elongated particles are unsuitable. 

The size of the coarse aggregate depends upon the nature 
of the work. For thin walls and other construction in which 
the concrete must be worked around reinforcing steel, the 
coai - aggregate should run from one-quarter inch to one inch 
in ize. For mass concrete work the coarse aggregate may well 
run from one-quarter inch to three inches in size. The best 
concrete results when the pebbles or stone are graded in size. 
Well-graded aggregates, i. e., varying in size from fine to 
coarse give stronger and more watertight concrete. 



Baffle 
Board 


2"x4* 


ELEVATION 




Cleats 


Side 


^3""""""""--- - 




Board 


22^- — -^ 


""^r-^V- 


/ Riffles 


"""-^^fe. 




fhh or Cleats 



Screen 



PEBBLES 




"TTTO^ 




A^ 2"x8" 



B^\ 



Screen 



2"x(2"Plahks 



2"*8" / Cleats 



PLAN 





-ECTJON A-A 



Screen -hi 

SECTION B-B 



!bl£! -aleanb arat^d from the 



' 



I 1 I I 






The < |.i I -'."-f ' 

marl) » » i f ; ' 

milk© nun* I h;it t 



n pi 11 ,4 » 



• !.. 



i 






l 



I 



! 



•t 



■ 



BanU-Run r*vel 



r.:ml in i I i »• ' ! 

Ullir W 

from ( 1 



I ii I in 

h:m that 

Il to VM 

lI must 

I Tit 1 1 I Ii 

I I II 

I 1 1 g t h 



i 



ti 



ii 



i 






I ii 



i 






Man- 1 an- 1 p#*M 
r i if I 



ik 



I 



\ \ 



1 ! 



It 



t\ 



tl 






hi 



' 



I ... 






■ 



A! 






u 









Use of Large Stones in Ma« Concrete 



In n\:i^8 v> h a ■ 

I 



rp f 



I t 

tun fh 

the s I ' Not < 



I 















■ 



, 








l 



Cinder Concrete 



no ret 



The t 
con ' : 

! sl 

t I ill -IV ft, 

mil I h:i 

r 
ra 

are r 



r~\ i 



n <-r< 















r 









J 



Cimi 

><; his ^r 



■mI 



luv.1 J 



9 



n • 



* 

H i 












i 






1 1 







i 



■ 






8 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



— 



and for fireproofing structural steel. The proportion ordi- 
narily used is one part of cement to live parts of cinders. The 
value of cinder concrete lies chiefly in its cheapness and light 
weight. fe 

Slag Concrete 

Blast furnace slag has found an increasing use as a coarse 
aggregate for concrete. The slag particles are extremeh 
hard, and. because of their pitted irregular surf: . are firmly 
held in the matrix of cement and sand. Formerly it was con- 
sidered necessary to caution against the presence ofsulphur. 
but presei day knowledge shows this caution to be unneces- 
sary, so that the Bureau of Standards states thai he sulphur 
content need not be specified. The American Society of 
testing Materials in their Tentative Spt ions require a 

minimum weight of sixty-five pounds er cul.ic foot for >ag 
in concrete not subject to abrasion and not less than seventy 
pounds in concrete floors or roads. 



Water 



„JS be suitable for mixing concrete, must be free from 

be i SfnlU ,° r a K y ?^ lmpU ' ' " a r shoul 'l not 

be used unless it is absolutely imp, I ,j. to s. h water 

It is very important to use only clean water. 

■ I^T^L 0i n ' ixing v ', :,ter ifi of utmost importance and 

is treated in the section on Proportioning w ich follows. 

PROPORTIONING CONCRETE 

bv T volm^ POrti( r 0f 1 m n aterials for concrete are alwaya stated 
parts if"and U «;, 2 me "^g one part f cen .two 

Uefprot^ ^ ^**ga mixture o< and and peb- 

o ment P fi ned ; ti,; »°out a 1 :5 mixtun .nepart 

LS,1 ,U ? ar of mixed aggn »tee)-* < i 1 :0-is 



the i quiva] | of a 1:2:4. 



1 -1 H r 1 :2.3 mixture for ,ncrete roadways, one course 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 9 



walks, floors, pavements; some watertight work such as tanks, 
reservoirs, swimming pools and cisterns; some cast work such 
as sewer pipe, drain tile and fence posts. 

1 :2 :4 mixture for reinforced concrete work such as beams, 
columns, floors, walls and general reinforced work; for w r ork 
subjected to a moderate amount of water and dampness; for 
work subjected to vibration such as bridges and engine 
foundations; for silos, elevators, coal bins. 



1:2J^:5 mixture for base course for sidew T alks, floors and 
pavements, basement walls not necessarily watertight, foun- 
dations, mass dams, retaining walls and wing walls of bridges 
and culverts. 

1:3:6 mixture for mass construction and large footings and 
foundations. 

If it is desired to determine exactly what mixture, with the 
materials available, will give the best and most dense con- 
crete, the principle involved is that of so proportioning the 
materials as to secure a complete filling of the voids. Sand, 
pebbles or crushed stone have included in their volume, spaces 
or voids. In the perfect concrete the voids are completely 
filled, the proportions being such that the voids in the coarse 
aggregate are filled by the fine aggregate, and the voids in 
the fine aggregate are filled by the cement. A certain pro- 
portion must be determined so that this condition will exist 
so far as possible from a practical standpoint. 

It is evident that if the pebbles or crushed stone are graded, 
containing large and small particles of various sizes, the 
smaller particles serve to fill the voids of the larger, and less 
sand is needed; likewise, with a graded sand, less cement is 
required. Hence, in the use of well-graded aggregates, properly 
proportioned with a certain amount of cement, better strength 
and density are obtained than with poorly-graded aggregates. 

Rough method for determining amount of voids and pro- 
portions for concrete mixtures is: Take a large pail or can 
of known volume — say five gallons. Fill with dry sand to be 
used. Pour in water, keeping accurate check on amount 
of water until it flushes to top of sand. Amount of water 
needed represents percentage of voids in sand; i. e., if two 



10 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



gallons of water were needed, percentage of voids is two-fifths 
or 40%. These voids must be filled by cement with a little 
to spare. Therefore, use say 50% cement, or one-half the 
volume of sand; or one part cement, two parts sand. Deter- 
mine voids in the stone or pebbles by same methods; i. e., if 
we found 40% voids in the stone we should fill these voids 
with sand, with a little to spare. We would then use 50% 
of sand, or twice as much stone as sand. Therefore this 
mixture would be one part cement, two parts sand and four 
parts stone or pebbles. 

Scientific methods of proportioning consist of determining 
the fineness modulus' 7 of the fine and coarse aggregates by 
sieve analysis and proportioning in ac< rdance with results 
so as to obtain a mixture which has the greatest possible 
density. *or detailed information on the design and control 
of concrete mixtures write to the Technical Department of 
lne Atlas Portland Cement Company 



Amount of Water 



An excess of water weakens the concrete; an insufficient 

n^ ^ P ?u Vents thorou S h mi^g. Water should be mea>- 
urea with the same precision as other materials. 

An example of the effect of water is illustrated by th table 

nLTfv, Page ' The l ests are at the a S e of 1 " tt1 v-ei£ht days, 

using the same mix but varying the amount of water. Th, 

ea2 atlt J + e ^ ate f 8t r rength is obtain( ' 1 " h * n th 
ewr STi i-^ ater USed \ Jt mus1 be remembered how- 

Sg of concri;!:: WatCr Can be US ^ thus PreVent ^ ^ 

97^ g 5 ¥ galIons of water P er ba 8 ()f cement a strength of 

27,0 pouinis per square inch is obtained; whereas, whXing 
u!r Tnch o*t *fe Btwng ? <»»*■«» to 830 pounds pef 

ca^ofS E d r °^ Water * WW& noticeable in the 

nour Hi! ' Too ,^h water bring, t mixture of 

the en of i " C6 f C ? ""■ * ater to th " **** and at 

the end of the day's work this forms a layer of white materia 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



11 







TABLE 1 






Gallons of Water per 




28-Day Compressive Strength 






Bag of Cement 




Pounds per Square Inch 






5.75 

6.0 

6.25 

6.5 

7.0 

7.5 

8.0 

9.0 




2770 
2600 
2400 
2250 
1950 
1670 
1470 
1100 






10.0 


830 






12.0 


480 






15.0 


200 





known as laitance. This laitance prevents the proper bonding 
of more concrete placed thereon and constitutes a plane of 
weakness. It is especially injurious if it occurs in tanks or 
dams, where water-tight construction is necessary. When 
laitance forms it should always be removed by scraping before 
new concrete is placed. 

The importance of the water content in concrete cannot be 
over emphasized and the best contractors are using the mini- 
mum amount of water consistent with allowing the concrete 
to be properly transported and deposited in the forms. A 
rich mixture requires less water to give the required plasticity, 
hence such a mixture has added strength because it contains 
less mixing water. 

The Slump Test 

The consistency of concrete or, in other words, the amount 
of water tc be used, may be checked by means of what is known 
as a slump test. 

The slump test requirement is intended to insure concrete 
mixed with the minimum quantity of water to produce a mix- 
ture with the necessary plasticity or workability. 

In determining workability, the newly mixed concrete shall 
be placed in a truncated cone-shaped metal mold 12 inches 



r 



12 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 

















thffable i^SSSSSr a f r p S a n? n w ^e e SSSSJ^S* ^J^' Abo ™ »»"*own 
concrete which afterward^!? b tested fo nt e depOSlted - * otice cylinders of 
method of measuring slump of conllite? moS7 fi Iffw! ^^ BeW ie 8hown 




ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 13 



> 



high, 8 inches in diameter at the base, and 4 inches in diameter 
at the top, and provided with handles at the sides as shown in 
the illustration. The concrete shall be lightly tamped with 
a rod as it is placed in the mold; which, when filled, shall be 
immediately removed and the slump or settlement of the 
concrete noted. 

Concrete such as is used for ordinary reinforced concrete 
work should show a slump of 8 inches; i. e., the 12-inch cone 
of concrete is only 4 inches high after the removal of the mold. 
For certain classes of work where the concrete does not need 
to be made so wet, because of the absence of reinforcement, 
the allowable slump is much less, 2}^ inches being about the 
right amount for ordinary plain concrete work such as floors, 
sidewalks, driveways, footings and basement walls. 



STORING AND HANDLING OF CEMENT, 

SAND AND STONE 

Careful storage of materials pays. Even on small jobs 
many tons of concrete materials must be unloaded, stored, 
placed in the mixer, elevated and distributed. If one handling 
can be eliminated, or if only a few cents a ton can be saved 
through proper arrangement, the result will be very noticeable 
in the profit or loss record. 

Although on a small or medium size building job it does not 
pay to lay out an elaborate storage and handling plant, some 
attention should be given to selecting convenient locations 
for various materials. 



Storing Cement 

The first thing in connection with the storage of cement on 
the job is to keep it absolutely dry. If the job is to last over 
two weeks, it is a good plan to provide a dry weathertight 
storage shed at some convenient location. Where the con- 



l^H 



14 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 




for cement at mixer. Capacit; bout b 
of slats and tar paper; sides of loose canvas. Notice 

off ground on mud-sills 




Roof is made 
oor raised 



ting will be finished in one or two weel - a temporary shel- 
ter i . own in Fig. 5 may be buili it the mixer. This 
olds about 2 ) bi s of cement which provid ample reserve 
in Cc 2 an; lay should c cur in 1 uling. It i the practice, 

hov er, to r .ke the shelter much smaller and in e me ca s 
to mere] provide a tarpaulin in case f rain to throw over the 
20 to 30 which are 1 pt at hand. 

Cement mi be kept off the ground no matter what ar- 
rangers are made for it- rage. 

For handling cement in bag- from si rui:<- bouse to mixer 
a two-wl el warehouse hand truck or wl rrow is st 

for d tance- up to about 200 feet. An a^ ag< id is 4 tu 

6 bags. 

Sand and Stone 

In order to < it down length of * barrow run the aid 
and stone -riles should ited to the mi Since 

in the n ori - of al twi much stoi - used 

as - id, the stone Dile should \,c InrattoH oh. vt t< thp mixer. 



UN CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



15 



Where there is plenty of room, the sand and stone is stored 
in low piles just as dumped from the bottom-dump or end- 
dump wagons or trucks. 

Where space is at a premium, temporary wooden bins allow 
the materials to be piled higher and confined to a smaller 
ground space. For most ordinary jobs this is not justified, 
unless storage space is unusually limited. 

The Atlas Portland Cement Company will be glad to offer 
suggestions on storage bins and on economical storage and 
handling of materials for larger work than treated in this book. 

MIXING AND PLACING 

Hand mixing is resorted to only when a very small quantity 
of concrete is to be mixed. For even small jobs a good mixer 
represents economy in labor and better quality concrete. 

Mixer 

The mixer should be of batch type with a capacity of at 
least a one-bag batch of 1 :3 :6 concrete. A mixer of this size 
will take a one-bag or a one and one-half bag batch of 1:2:4 
mixture. However, it is well to avoid when possible a split- 
bag batch, since using part of a bag tends to lead to inac- 
curacies in proportioning. 





Fig. 6.— Small gasoline driven concrete mixer. Notice necessity for runways because 

mixer is not equipped vrith elevating loader skip. 




16 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



» 



All things considered, an elevating loader-skip is a good help 
to most mixers except where mixer can be located below the 
wheeling level for sand and stone. 

Water Supply 

The water supply for the mixer should come through a 
13^-inch pipe, or better, a 2-inch pipe. Not only is it extremely 
important from the standpoint of securing good concrete, 
that the amount of water and therefore, the consistency of 
each batch should remain uniform, but also from considera- 
tions of economy and increase of mixer output. Hence, some 
means of securing a regulation of the amount of mixing water 
per batch is very desirable. (Fig. 7.) 

Many concrete mixers may be purchased equipped with 
an automatic water measuring drum attached permanently 
to the mixer. These are so arranged as to allow just the re- 
quired amount of w^ater to flow into the tank for each batch. 



Box with Soldered 
Metal Lining 



Swinging Pipe To 
Control water Level 

Elbow 




2" Overflow 
Pipe 





2" Inlet 



Quick Action 
Valves 



mixer 



Inlet to 
Mixer 2% 



i u 




FlR< ? m^^? r ,/o^J DQea ! Uriag r I1J ? xi l Ilg w&ttc ior concr-te mixers not equipped witL 
measuring apparatus. It is best to purchase mixer already eauinoed. 



k. 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



17 



TABLE 2 
DATA ON MIXING CONCRETE 

Dimensions for Bottomless Measuring Boxes of Various Capaciti 



Capacity in Cubic Feet 



1 

m 

3 



cubic 
cubic 
cubic 
cubic 
cubic 
cubic 
cubic 
cubic 
cubic 



foot 

feet 

feet 

feet 

feet 

feet 

feet 

feet 

feet 




INSIDE MEASURE 



Breadth 
Inches 



Height 
Inches 



12 


12 


15 


W% 


15 


uy 2 


15 


13}* 


18 


10% 


18 


12 


18 


13% 


18 


14% 


18 


16 



Mixing 

For charging the mixer a wheelbarrow is generally used. 
The ordinary wheelbarrow load of sand or stone is 2 cubic 
feet. A deeper barrow which holds 4 cubic feet may be 
obtained, and these sometimes are used although rarely filled 
with over 3 feet of material. Fig. 8 shows a bottomless 
measuring box which assures the correct amounts of materials. 

Table 2 gives the dimensions for bottomless measurin 
boxes of various capacities. 

Where wheelbarrow measurement of sand and gravel is to 
be permitted, the capacity of the wheelbarrow should first 
be found by the use of a measuring box. 




Fig. 8. — Bottomless measuring boxe? 
for sand and stone should be used for 
accurate measuring; measuring by 
shovelsful is very inaccurate. Wheel- 
barrow measurement should be checked 
occasionally by throwing the box on 
the wheelbarrow and thus filling the 
barrow with a measured quantity. 



wr-m 



A 



18 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



Concreting Gang 

soe^ifvinftS 11 !- par ^ r u aphs are not intend ed for definitely 
speciijmg tn< ize of the gane for p*oh ;^.k r\ i l y 

is g ven for eMimatino- th« „ • f- J , 0nl y a ba s<s 

or mediuS Sed oh T ^rganizat.on needed for the average 

of l^fcone Z ete s to be mixed^Th^ * T^u*** 5, 

of sand and 2 barrows of stone foT eachlmT TV ba ' T0W 
three wheelers and nri^ +k V / , mix - Thls means 

stone piles o th ^S™ 6 ,^??? ^ I th ? Sand and 
two extra shovele ™ Y ° rt lt 1S a good P lan to ha ™ 

atttncTto Sr/nglne dBS^tffP *" 3** ° De man to 
mixer foreman. One man »H P n? . f and act as a S eneral 
regulating water and 2e mlltobJ^ 1 ^ in CCment and 
mixer, sorting and buSS^p^Sg Itc* CemeDt t0 ^ 

forSandlC £ tgE*^ ?«*** det ™e be- 
on far the concrete m w k u n , eeded — it all depends 
can | um; to r> ace T t ' T^u^ and how «*& " 
o ch bat, ut it oroLhK e n\ hetlbarrows wiIJ tak( ' care 
barrows , , k^^J^^ ** ^ ^ 

Charging mixer 

2 wheelers on stone possibly 1 loader) 
1 wheeler on sand ( .ssibly 1 loaderl 
At mixer — 

lj leer or mixer foreman. 

u« *m driven, add l fireman.) 

1 ce an, te, ni . ltJ '' 

" mg g % :Z "' 7mX " r fProbab,y J additi0Dal 
T °i ^Proximately 12 men 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



L9 



Output of Concrete 

For conservatively estimating output, an average time for 
each batch should be from two to three minutes. This means 
actual mixing of at least one minute. Table 3 gives output 
for various proportioned batches on this assumption. 

TABLE 3 

Hourly Output of Concrete for Various Proportions Based on Aver- 
age Time per Batch 



Proportions, 1-Bag Batch 



Aver. Time 
per Batch 
2 Minutes 



1:2:3 

1:2:4 

1:23^:4.. 

1:2 }/ 2 AV 2 
l:2i/ 2 :5.. 
1:3:6 



Cubic Yds 

4.0 
4.3 
5.0 

5.4 

5.7 

6.0 
7.1 



Aver. Time 
er Batch 
Minutes 



Aver. Time 
per Batch 
4 Minutes 



Cubic Yds. 

2.6 
2.9 
3.3 
3.6 
3.8 
4.0 
4.7 



Cubic Yds. 

2.0 
2.2 
2.5 

2.7 
2.9 
3.0 
3.5 



For a two-bag batch multiply quantities by 2, and for three- 
bag batch multiply by 3, etc. Of course, a larger batch will 
require more men supplying the mixer. 

Taking an average time per batch of 3 minutes, which is 
fair for the medium size job, the output of the gang listed on 
a 1-bag, 1 :2 :4 mix would be 26.4 cubic yards for an 8-hour day. 

TABLE 4 

Computing Daily Yardage of Concrete Mixed and Placed 



Proportions 



Amount of Concrete in a 1-Bag Batch 



1:1H:3-. 
1:2:3. ... 

1:2:33^.. 
1:2:4 

1:2^:4. . 

1:214:5. 

1:3:5.. . 

1:3:5^. . 
1:3:6.... 



Cubic Feet 


Cubic Yards 


3.53 


.131 


3.90 


.145 


4.22 


.156 


4.50 


.167 


4.88 


.181 


5.17 


.192 


5.44 


.202 


5.81 


.215 


6.11 


.226 


6.38 


236 



See next page for example of using this table. 



20 THE ATLA8 HANl>BooK 



Example: Your mixer has turned out 164 two-bag batches 
of 1:23 :5 concrete and you want to know how much this 
amounts to in cubic yards. Table 4 gives .202 cubic yards 
for a one-bag batch, so we multiply .202 by 2 to give us the 
quantit for a two-bag batch, and this by 164 batches to get 
the total yardage. Thus: .202 x 2 x 164 = 66.2 cubic yards. 

Another method for arriving at the same result is to deter- 
mine i >m Table 33, page 138, the number of ) . of cement 
n ui 1 for a cubic yard of mixed concrei . . then dividi 
this iv, mto tl number of bags used (by coun > empty 
ba a 1 the r ult will be the number of cubic ds mixed. 

sample: As above, 164 two-bag ba hee means that then 
should be 328 emr, - bags. A 1:2^:5 mix reqi ..bout 5 

bags per cubic ird. Dividing 5 into 328 give> aim 66 
cubic ds of mixed concrete. B< r in mind thai ai SU ch 
quantities are only rough a: >roximations— variations in 

aggregates may make these quautith too large oo small. 

Placing 

For the .small or medium size job handling the concrete 

must mt one of two genera) conditions: 

1 . Where concre sd« it, below, or at about tin am 

level as the mixer. 

2 - Wh ' 0L must be elevated ah e the mixer level ■ 

foi instance for walls and floors above ground. 

For ie fi , idition, i special arrangec at need be 

S l K C0D, J ****** directly from the mixer 

11 rro ^carts-"concrete buggies/ 1 \. ncrete 

S . 8a ! - < «w»S sthen w led 

( a J 7' Placed in foundations or 

oo gsbe om d level, nm, , board chut maybeused 

' Utin JtJ °P ta - ^-hut are; with a flared 

I I tl second condition, where the concrete must be ele- 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



21 



vated, some special provisions are made. Where the job 
is a one-story building, such as a garage, dairy barn or store 
building, and the concrete must be elevated not more than 10 
or 15 feet above ground level, inclined runways for wheeling 
the concrete up to the required elevation are simple and 
reasonable in cost, especially if only a small amount of con- 
crete is to be handled. Wheelbarrows of 2 cubic feet capacity 
are used, the larger concrete buggies being too heavy. In 
order to cut down the slope, runways are often built with 
one or two returns. On some very small jobs where only a 




— Concrete carriage or "buggy'* of 6 cubic feet capa 

ordinary barrow for handling concrete. 






few yards are raised a few feet, it pays to use ordinary hand 
pails to pass up the concrete. 

For the majority of jobs a hoist of some sort will be needed. 
A standard concreting hoist tower is shown in Fig. 10. This 
is made of wood by carpenters on the job and can be used 
over and over again, if well cared for. A chute for discharging 
from the mixer into the bucket is shown in Fig. 11. Such a 
tower may be used not only for hoisting concrete, but by 
replacing the concrete bucket with a platform, may be used 
for elevating other materials as well. 




22 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 




H£A0&L0CK / t>'9~ 



POST5 



*'»& /jrr o* / > & 



'<■ 3lO< 



I 



Pictured 






l 



i 




ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



23 




M/X£X 



Chute 



Fig. 11. — Automatic chute for dis- 
charging mixer into hoist bucket. When 
bucket descends it strikes the rope 
pulling the chute ii discharging posi- 
tion. When bucket ascend* it pushes 
the chute back out of the way. 



W/#£ CA8LE 



^— 






Some contractors prefer to eliminate the concrete bucket 
by using a platform hoist for elevating the barrows one at a 
time. This is simple and less expensive as it requires no 
outlay for a bucket, but is not good policy where it is ex- 
pected to keep the mixer running constantly at capacity, 
since the concrete could not be taken away fast enough. 
Fig. 12 shows a platform hoist. 

A simpler rig for use where 
only small quantities are to 
be elevated one or two stories 
is shown in Fig. 13. This con- 
sists of a light mast which 
-erves to guide a small bucket. 
Stops catch the lip of the bucket 
and tip it, thus discharging its 
contents into a hopper and 
chute. 

A device sometimes used for 
hoisting small quantities of 
concrete only one or two stories, 
as well as other material, is 
the jib-crane (Fig. 15). This is 
very useful when equipped 
with a small tip-bucket, or an 
improvised bucket made of a 




Guide 



Fig. 12. — Platform he for 
wheelbarrow or loose material. 



r 
















M 







, 






•; 












• •• . . 





































, 



ON CUiN C R E T E C N S 1 R UCTlu N 



25 



~ST£CL PLA7B 





ecceftwc 
Block 




Fig. 14* — A hand-brake for use 
with m hoist. The brake can 
be employ! for controlling the 
descent of the bucket when a horse 
is employed for raising it. 



Fig. 15. — Mast-hoist or jib-crane 
used for lifting a very light load or 
a very small quantity of coneret; 
By making mast-step as shown to 
detail, this mast may be revolved. 



Since these drums are generally furnished with the smaller 
gasoline mixers, it should be borne in mind that they are not 
designed for very heavy loads. If the work requires a lift of 
three stories or more, it is best to have a separate hoist. 

There are a number of simple and reliable single-drum 

These are ideal for small and 



gasoline hoists on the market. 



medium sized jobs and should form a part of the equipment 
of every contractor. 

Many jobs, such as silos, small elevated water tanks, etc., 
call for so small a quantity of concrete that it does not pay 
to bring a power hoist to the work. The combination of a jib 
crane (Fig. 15) and a horse will solve the problem. No more 



un 







THE XL AS HANDBOOK 








aa m re di 



ppei i more convenient at well 



up at time. It i dvisabie to hav< me form c brake, 

h as - own in Fig. 14 to control the descent of the bucket. 
When a con in. , r and tip-buckel are employed, an 

du narg hoj r mu ; be provided as shown in Fig. 

li ' Copper is made on " , but t ai o the 

n ' ■' '»Pers which may be used in the ,me wa . 

■n hopj r, or from the bucket if one of the simpler 

ev u -" "' e acrete is discharged ii wheelbarrow 

.-con ting . arts for trar. ng i the poi of phv ig. 

- the lar t jobs a tem of , ■ '. used 

. this t uld not pa.. ,n a small or medium used job 



Lk 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 27 



WATER-TIGHT CONCRETE 

The methods employed in making concrete water-tight 

may be classified as follows: 

(1) Accurately grading and proportioning the materials so as 

to secure maximum density; and depositing so as to avoid 
seams or porous spots. 

(2) Special treatment of the surface after the concrete has 

hardened; 

(3) Mixing compounds with the concrete — known as the 

integral method; 

(4) Application of layers of waterproof material such as 

asphalt and felt to the concrete, known as the membrane 
system. 

1. Accurate Grading and Proportioning of 

Materials 

It is an established fact that an impermeable concrete can 
be made by the use of good, clean, wll-graded aggregate so 
proportioned with the cement as to secure maximuin density- 
Following is a quotation from Technologic Paper No. 3, by 
the Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce and 
Labor, Washington, D. C: 

"Portland cement mortar and concrete can be made 
practically water-tight or impermeable ( as defined above) 
to any hydrostatic head up to 40 feet without the use of 
any of the so-called "integral" waterproofing materials; 
but, in order to obtain such impermeable mortar or con- 
crete considerable care should be exercised in selecting 
good materials as aggregates, and proportioning them 
in such a manner as to obtain a dense mixture. The 
consistency of the mixture should be w r et enough so that 
it can be puddled, the particles flowing into position 
without tamping. The mixture should be well spaded 
against the forms when placed, so as to avoid the forma- 
tion of pockets. 

"The addition of so-called 'integral' waterproofing 
compounds will not compensate for lean mixtures, nor 
for poor materials, nor for poor workmanship in the 
fabrication of the concrete. Since in practice the inert 



A 



2S 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



ntegral compounds (acting simply as void filling ma- 
terial) are added in such small quantities, they have verv 
httle or no effect on the permeability of the concrete 
11 the same care be taken in making the concrete imper- 
meable without the addition of the waterproofing mate- 
rials as is ordinarily taken when waterproofing materials 
are added, an impermeable concrete can be obtained." 

No matter how impermeable the concrete may be made 
it w. 1 be to httle purpose if the placing of concrete is donein 

a care PS manner o/\ no +« — :x iL 



„ „„_^i„ r~r™*> '•■ me piaumg 01 concrete is done in 

cr u k ? IT" 6 ? aS t0 Permit the ^currence of seam-, 
cracks, poorly made construction joints, air or stone pockets 

H fen! V W ^ kter all0W the ™ ter t0 ^ak through: 
IfZt l\ f CU I 1 k P ^ g the concrete are such that such 
iefec ts cannot be guarded against with certainty, it is best 
to adopt the waterproofing methods of surface treatment 
or membrane sysl m d crib. I lal It is obvious that 



; nt ._„l „,„. " VT — "' ^~ ««n.<-i. 11, is uuvious mat 

ntegral va rproofmgs also are of little help in preventing 
leakage through th< defects listed above. renting 

2. Special Treatment of Surface 

deafinVv \ff! ' 'V° W&i the treat """t of the surface, 
kt fnnl 1 tl, ° " "TV nt m0rtar or ™* h of some 

„' a PP lled t0 t, he mdi " e of ™< concrete after the removal 
° n f 1 ™eco eteis l„ ,, | ail(1 roZned 

emo\ Zl ' P 7"5? Ml ' U orgwlTS be 

p y H' ibstances on the concrefc 

Pi leadh. nonol them. \ stone piek or milar 

U S) '° Uld ' , U ' " ■-'• "'' •'" ce thorough^ th,,i 

' "" l ; , ' : • and the mortS n, - 

to a 1 hi- of Vu 1 \r\oh r \ I ■; n i *W uea 

coat annli t in?, ., l j ^ -"" raJJ y Hone in tw< 

, iifi a trowel. A good mixture a 

! i! ', « well-grad,d 

' f ' jr e impervious eurl ■ 

mks . md well lining - , . 

'' "f" I'" inside trfael con! 

l< lia * ,ia ' : J)j ' J'la. ould thor- 



A ic 



I II 

II 

1 


















I V 










j 

I 



1 1 I 



























1 





















i 









I •fr«l V' 















■ 



■ fcl 































\1 



f 
















■ 






' 



















on I 



\ V 






N 










m 



30 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



Croupd Surface 




CtmrA MorUr 



. • ■ * 



faotir/j 



r" 



ftlsz Floor' 
2" 77/ick 



'BituiTjioous 

CoitiM 



] 17. — One n.tihod of rem iug 

Jhir wall w :ht. 

ground is , n 

>nn of sur 
•jran- e it is difficult to a 

joii ins or s i 

I e deposii i» low gi rid level. 



J parti work, succe rive layers of Lot 

phaU and bui reu d 

1 h p q in v. proofing eitht r in Btruc- 

ilt b m built, the Ai Portland ( men 

Q l Wllj ,>(J gl oopen i cho< tig tl method 



i ' L if 

8 t >f 

8UJ 
Tl U8UL 

uusuall. 



Com of 

J*orU 




Mm 

Floor 






O N C X ( ! H E T E CO X s T R U C flu N 



31 



CONCRETING IN COLD WEATHER 

Concrete work can be done successfully, in cold weather b 
observing a few simple rules, [n making and placing concrete 
with the temperature below 35 degrees Fahrenheit, keep tl 
concrete from freezing until it has become thoroughly hard- 
ned. Freezing is prevented by (1) Heating the materials 

(2) protecting the fresh concrete from the cold. 

Water for mixing may be heated in the water barrel, or 
supply tank, by a coil of pipe through which passes exhaust 
or live steam. There are also devices for heating the water 
by direct contact with steam as it passes through a mixing 
valve. On small jobs a large kettle or caldron with fire beneath 
is employed. Water is usually heated to about 150 degree-. 

One method of heating the sand and stone is by embedding 
a discarded sheet iron pipe in the piles (Fig. 19). A wood fire 
in the pipe furnishes the heat. Sand and stone are sometime- 
heated by steam coils or by thrusting one or more steam pipes 
into piles of material. The steam pipes are drawn down to a 
small opening at the vnd so as not To pass too much steam. 
Some prefer to perforate the steam coils with a number of -mall 



















1 



<* 



* 










A 






t 





ig, 19. — A simple way of heating sand and stone by means of sheet iron pipes 

with fire inside. 



32 



THE ATLAS H A .\ U B O U K 







*>• 20.— Heating mixing water by means of a steam coil at the mixer. Steam jet 
— mixing va and other devices are also employed for heating l i ing water. 

very small jobs a tank or caldron with fire beneath will be sufficient. 



Fig . 

am mixing va: 
For 



holes to allow the steam to pass out. As tl • si m rises 
through the sand and stone it effectually heat^ the particl 
Canvas may be stretched over the tops of the material piles 
to prevent the too rapid i - ?ape of the steam. 

All fresh concrete must be protected imined tely upon 
being placed in the forms. This suffices for large mass work or 
where temperatures are not very low ; cam - and a thick layer 
of hay or straw should be used as a covering. For small eon- 
rete members or thin floors where the ma- of concrete is 
•nail, it is customary to enclose the work with building 3 per 
or 1 nyas and heat the interior by means of "salamanders" 
(sheet iron stoves). It is now the usual practice to enclo 
reinforced concrete buildings with canvas and keep e 
interior temperature well above freezing by the use of sala- 
manders. 

For winter work forms must be left in place a longer time 
than with summer temperatures. Further detail on winter 
work may be obtained by sending for "Concreting in Winter 



ON C I ) NCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



33 



CONCRETING UNDER WATER 

To obtain good concrete, when it must be placed under 
water, it is necessary to get the concrete in place without 
giving the water a chance to separate the aggregates and 

cement. 

The simplest and probably best method is to use a "tremie" 
( Fig. 21). This is a sheet iron cylindrical chute with a hopper 
at the top. It is open at both ends. The cylindrical portion 
should be large enough to hold an entire batch of concrete 
and long enough to extend from just above the water level to 
the bottom of the excavation to be concreted. The "tremie" 
is placed in the water and filled with concrete. It is then 
raised slowly just far enough to allow part of the concrete to 
escape through the open bottom and spread into place. The 
lower end of the pipe should never be emptied of concrete. 
This will prevent the entrace of water from the bottom. 

When only a very small amount of concrete is to be placed, 
it can be shoveled into a length of stove pipe used in much 
the same manner as a "tremie." This is simply and easily 



SURFACE 
OF WATER 



, Wood form 
(sufficiently t/ont 
to insure st/ u 

Water inside form) 




level of concrete 
Should never be 

below wis un e 



BOTTOM OF TREMIE 

MUST NEVER BE lIFTW 

ABOVE CONCRETE 



Fig. 21. — Depositing con- 
crete under water by mean.'' 
of a pipe or "tremie." 
Details of this illustration 
need not be followed exactly 
but can be adapted to each 
Darticular class of work. 



34 T H E A T L A 5 H A D B O O J 



done First put the pipe in position and fiJl it full of concre 
to t pel the water. Then gradually lift it a 1 tie each tin: 
ou ut in a batch. 

Just lall an amount of mixing ater a~ is po« )le 

uld be (if i for all coi re p ced under water bo as to 
r lu the danger : ration of the concrete n 

C under i ha r tenden o form a cum 

than co te ater. Fort: s re n a ma 
under water -hould poured in i 
though t i require I I nig : work ( rv 

th( 11 1 v . i g n | 

i. W that are partially under 
jrought v ■ r i I before the ( ring 

is I. Prcr t n tl q be i for buil- 

of the all a1 er dat ph g boi g 

m tl " al atoi tl 

BONDING CONCRETE OR MORTAR TO 
CONCRETE ALREADY IN PLACE 

Th Hi a m urf livid 1 i 

nin -u r f; 

r pla ring, — id hori mtal ^urf; h a- 

dl id joints in 

Vertical Surfaces 

^ l ^ ( -' ^ ' he i bear 

bn . r i dtfl i ) 

1 by using ted 1 1: tl f< 

Id b 

'J utl irt mun and ur t 

dl 

ig 
th v dr< 

apj rush tin -urf; th a 

ad 



Preparing Surfaces for Bonding 



a P h ig - u ftcidi i- 

n ha* I | , 



on concrete c o n s t in c t i < > n 



35 



method for securing the same results. An insoluble chemical 
solution is painted on the forms before concrete is poured and 
renders the surface film of concrete "dead" so that it can be 
brushed off or washed off very easily, leaving the aggregate 
exposed and the surface rough and in excellent condition for 
furnishing a good bond. Name of manufacturer of this 
material will be furnished upon request. 

Horizontal Surfaces 

Bonding horizontal surfaces usually consists of placing the 
finishing coat on floors or sidewalks, or pouring concrete for 
walls on successive days. 

If the concrete has hardened, the surface must be thor- 
oughly cleaned, roughened and wetted. Then apply a creamy 
mixture of cement and water by the methods already described 
and follow immediately with the topping if a floor or sidewalk, 
or additional concrete if a wall. 



CURING CONCRETE 

If the forms are allowed to stay in place for several days 
they will provide sufficient protection. If they are removed 
while the concrete is still green, protection should be provided 
by covering with canvas or burlap, or sprinkling, which will 
prevent drying too rapidly. Too rapid drying out is liable to 
cause cracks and a weakened concrete. The presence of 
sufficient moisture during the early hardening period of ten 
days or two weeks will greatly increase the strength of the 
concrete. 

Floors, sidewalks, driveways and similar work having large 
areas of exposed surfaces require special protection to prevent 
too rapid drying out. As an illustration concrete road specifi- 
cations require that the concrete be first protected by covering 
with canvas and then as soon as there is no danger of pitting, 
that the concrete be covered with dirt and kept wet for a 
period of ten days. Such specifications strongly emphasize 
the importance of proper curing of concrete because it is 
realized that the strength and resistance to wear depend so 
greatly upon this. 



36 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



SURFACE FINISHES 

A good surface finish adds to the attractiveness and hence 
to the value of the structure. There are several different 
finishes for concrete. 

For ordinary construction a smooth, dense surface free 
from cavities is sufficient. Cavities can be prevented by 
spading and churning the concrete as it is poured and by 
poundmg the forms with wooden mallets to force back the 
coarse aggregate from, and bring the mortar to, the surface 
ot the form. (Fig. 22.) 

The washed or scrubbed finish is attractive and easily 
handled. It is obtained on the spaded or mortar faced surface, 
by using a stiff fibre or wire brush with plenty of water while 
the concrete is still green. The forms must be removed in 
about twenty-four hours in order that the surface may be 
effectively treated. If too green, the aggregate will break 
out and if allowed to harden too long the work cannot be done 
effectively. The washing of the surface should be continued 
until a uniform texture results. 

Exposing the aggregates by chem- 
ical means is now being done by 
a recently introduced method. The 
process is the same as described in 
the paragraph headed "Preparing 
Surfaces for Bonding" (see 
35 and Fig. 24), 

The rubbed surface is much used 
and very satisfactory. By spading 
the concrete as above described and 
pounding the forms with a wooden 
mallet an even surface next to the 
forms is secured. While the con- 
crete is still soft and moist— 

(rubbing should be don. within 24 
hours after pouring if forms can 
be removed)— rub this surface 
with a wooden float on which 
is placed from time to time coarse 
sand and water, or use a carborun- 
dum brick dipped in water. If 









>. 










M • 



* m ~ 

it'. ' ■ * * 



•• -.*- 









I - 






' ".'net 




A\ 



j 



4 



'' 



fc 



i 



^ 



^o 



page 



End of Pipe 
Split and Flattened 



** 



• - /• 






Fig. 22.— Spading tool for secur- 
ing good surface next to the form. 
A thin board may be u^d if the 
spading tool is not available 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



37 







n 

I 







* 







p.* 





Fig. 23 — Types of Concrete Surface Finish 



The upper three 
blocks are hammer 
finished, in fine and 
coarse pointed tex- 
ture. The rougher 
finish is best adapted 
to concrete with large 
size coarse aggregate 
and the finer textures 
to cement-sand sur- 
faces* 



The two lower 

blocks are fine and 
coarse bush-hammer 
finish. The width of 
lines is determined by 
the thickness of th 
blades in the bush- 
hammer. Concrete 
which ia to be bush- 
hammered must be 
thoroughly hard and 
made of a tough, hard 
coarse aggregate. 






**^^ 



r 



38 



THE A T L A - HANDBOOK 



there are pocke they -hould be filled during rubbing with a 
1 :2 mortur. li the concrete has hardened the for mark- 
and fins t by the board- can best be removed by rubbing 
with a carborundum block. 

Tooling may be done either by hand tool-, such - picks 
and bush hammer- or by pneumatic or electric hammer - 
and very satis ry results are obtains The concrete 

should be at least thirty ays old. It must be well-hardened 
and should be older for pneumatic hammering than for hand- 
tooling. < Fig. 23 

A •• lash" finish c can be applied directly to the surface 

f concrete. A creamy mixture of 1:2 Atl; -White Cement 

id -and is thrown on with a -"iff rush, so as to thoroughly 

oyer the concrete -urface. This produ a very attractive 

finish at si ill cost. The concrete surf; refer: ly should 

green."' that is not thoroughly hardened. (Fig 25.) 

Stucco when applied to concrete makes a very satis ictorj 

-urfa finish. It is f utmost impor m. that tl crete 




Fjc, 2-1.— An exposed ag £ finish secured bi lemieal methods de* *d on page 3 

i nis method g a pleasing appt-a: 



a mi 




OX CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



39 



be properly prepared by roughening, cleaning and wettin 
so that the stucco will adhere firmly. If the forms are re- 
moved within 24 hours the surface of the concrete can be 
treated with a wire brush, so as to remove the surface film. 
If it is necessary to leave the forms on for a longer time the 
surface can be roughened by means of a stone pick or similar 
tool. All loose particles should then be entirely cleaned off 
and the concrete should be thoroughly drenched with water. 
(See page 35 for chemical method of roughening surface.) 

Stucco is a mixture of cement, sand and water, with or 
without the addition of hydrated lime; in other words, it is 
a cement mortar. The mixture suggested is one part cement, 
three parts sand and one-tenth part hydrated lime. 

A large variety of surface finishes are possible, such as 
smooth, rough, stippled, spatter-dash and exposed aggregate. 
The use of Atlas-White with coloring pigments, or with color 
aggregates, such as colored sands, colored crushed marble 
or crushed granite, allows a wonderful variety of color effects. 
The color combinations and textures are practically unlimited. 

Stucco is also applied to concrete blocks, hollow tile, brick, 
and metal lath. Further information on stucco with speci- 
fications will be gladly furnished by The Atlas Portland 
Cement Company. 








-• 



IV 25. — Sand-spraving or spatter-dashing a poured-concrete surface. This 
type°of surface finish must be applied while the concrete is still "green" and before 
the surface has become dirty or dusty. 



r 



40 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



CHAPTER II 



REINFORCED CONCRETE 

Reinforced concrete is a combination of steel and concrete. 

Concrete in its qualities of strength is very similar to stone. 
It will stand great pressure, or compression, but is compara- 
tively weak in resisting pull, or tension. 

Because concrete is strong in compression, and steel is 
strong in tension, steel rods are embedded in the c-ncrete to 
resist tension, and the concrete bears the comji ion. This 
is the basis of reinforced concrete. In this wav each material 
does the work best suited for it. 



BEAMS AND GIRDERS 

The principle of reinforced concrete is clearly shown in the 
case of a beam. If a beam is laid on two support and a heavy 
load is placed on the center, the top of the beam is in com- 
pression while the bottom is in tension. If the beam were 

c W i°°C lt would be very noticeable, aa ihe won.! in the top 
of the beam would be crumbled together, while at the bottom 
of the beam it would be torn apart, 

^ The same action occurs in a concrete beam. Figure 26 

snows a concrete beam broken in two by a load on the center. 

ine point where the break first occurs is at the bottom lx cause 

tie concrete is weak in tension. If there had been some steel 

bars, which are very strong in tension, in the bottom of the 

beam as shown in Figure 27 the steel would have taken the 
tension. 

Concrete is fireproof and is not harmed by water; while 
steel loses its strength when heated and rus if subjected to 
moisture. When embedded in concrete, the .steel reinforcing 
rods are protected from fire and water. In all reinforced 
concrete work the steel rods should be covered with from 
one to two inches of concrete. 



UN CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



41 





Fig. 26 





Fig. - i 



When a plain concrete beam is loaded until it begins to 
break, it cracks in several places, as shown in Figure 29. In 
the center of the beam the cracks are perpendicular, while 
toward the ends the cracks are more and more at an angle. 
It is readily seen that the proper place for the reinforcing steel 
is at right angles to the cracks; but in practice this is impos- 
sible, as it would require such complicated placing of the 
steel. A compromise is therefore made. 





Fi g. 28 



Location of Reinforcing Steel 

Some of the bars are left straight for the entire length of 
the beam. These are at right angles to the cracks near the 
center, as shown in Figure 29. Then some of the bars are 
bent, as shown in Figure 30. These, known as doublebent 
bars, take care of the possible cracks toward the ends. Smaller- 
sized bars, in the shape of a "U," and known as stirrups 
placed closer together near the ends of the beams than toward 
the center are used to take care of additional stresses, Figure 
31. 

Thus, in Figures 29, 30, and 31 are shown the three types 
of bars for beam reinforcing; and in Figure 32 the complete 
reinforcing. 



42 



1 H E ATLAfi MA - U h u K 





Fig l 





. 50 





n 



c^r-_ 



r 






1 



a 



H 



u 



c — n ,_ 
















Pig. 32 



Kinds of Beams 

Beams are called simple if they extend between two sup- 
ports only, neither end being fixed. Beam- in larse building 
work are usually made to extend from one -ide of - e building 
to the other, being supported by a number of intermediate 
columns. These are known as continuous bean 

Another type of beam is the cantilever, in which only one 
end of the beam is supported. This end must be securely held 
as if in a vise. 



Loads 

The loading on a beam may be uniformly distributed 

hroughoi ie entire length, or concentrated in one point: 

or a combination of bot A beam supporting a wall of uniform 

weight and thickness, is an example of a uniformlv loaded 

beam. Figure 33. 

If, instead of this wall, the beam carries the load trans- 
mitted from anntlipr V. m tKc.ro > ,,M k^ ^ «~ x x,j 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



43 



<& 



^=^ 



i 



L 




* ■ ■■■^ - ' 

' ' ' ' i 



* *, . y 



1 






' i'. i 'i '-H-t 



2 



5=* 



r— r 



i r 



^^ 






■ _»_ 



i . i , i 



: 



• 



* l 



33 



- * 

- 






I 



Fig. 33. — Example of uniformly 

loaded beam. 










Fig. 34. — Example of beam with 
concentrated load. 



ff 



^ 




55 



j/rr-rr 



^ I '^' l 



I =P 



5 



C=Z! 



n^ 



t±n 



I 



,» ' 



s 



- T f \s . 




I > ' I 



n 



2 



£ 



?* 



J_-Lki 



1 I 



: 



E=n 



j 7 



nrrn 






h ■ * - * ■ * 



4 , 






. 



- * * - - - 






— 




• 



ZD 



Fig. 35. — Example of beam cann- 
ing a combined uniform and con- 
centrated load. 



load. Figure 34. If the beam 
carries both the wall and the 
load from another beam, there 
would be a combination loading, 
Fig. 35. 

The superimposed load, or the 
load that the beam carries, is 
called the live load. 

The weight of the beam itself 
is called the dead load. The dead 
as well as the live load must al- 
ways be taken into consideration 
in design. A beam must be de- 
signed sufficiently strong to 
transmit its load to its supports. 




SECTION A~A 

Yig m 36. — Typical reinforcing for concrete beam. Only the 
grin "reinforcing is shown. In actual practice stirrups are in- 



stalled as shown in Figure 32. 










55 



. £5 






Fig. 37. — Slab reinforcing. 



44 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



-rw 



TABLE 5 

Total Safe Live Loads in Pounds Uniformly Distributed, 

for Simple Beams. (See Figure 36) 



Depth 




SPAN IN FEET 




Depth 

to 
eel 

7.00 

7 . 

s. 

9.75 
10 75 

7 (1 
7 i 

8 . 
9 

10 

6 

• 75 

Ki 75 

l 50 

12 . 50 


. Depth 

1 • ow 
eel 

1.00 
1.25 
1.25 

1 

l r,o 

l 00 

l 
1 
i 

1 50 

1 25 

1 50 
] 
1 50 


Bteel 


oi 
Be i 

in 
Inches 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Area 

* 


■■ ■ 


For Beams 6 Inches Wide 






8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


2 

3 

4 
5490 

6720 


2 1 00 
2736 

44 28 
5472 


1764 

2226 
00 

4 

45 


1440 
1824 
2400 
3072 

3 


1188 
1512 

20< M ) 




960 
12 

1680 
2 

27 


.258 

.282 

.318 
.354 
.396 






For Beams 8 Inches Wide 






8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


3680 

4 

5 

7 
89' 


: 


2 

4 
6048 


1 

2 2 

• 00 

40 

51 


15 
16 

7 

3456 
4320 


] 
J 1 

2060 

■' 


344 

37ii 
424 

.472 
-28 




For Beams 10 Inches Wide 




10 
11 
12 
13 


730< 
91 
] 1 200 

1 

00 


9120 

10 

1 


• 
1 


5120 

6400 

7. <i 

10 


• 
•1. 20 
5400 

i 

7 


2800 

370 
,00 

. too 

65( N i 



66 
700 

.7' 



e Tab 

BaBf-d on Ijafi n oonti fo, Plain d lo ed/ 1 by Taylor and 

hompson. 

I nit fciress for con te cone red a.- \ p tfl J» I i ch i*>r Hteel as 14 000 

pounds per squan in< , D n gn. 



FLOOR SLABS 

e floor slab, a < del 1 as a I s 

un* ■ He ah h of com i t) 

*H I >un 1 at on< til J reinforcing therefore, \< r 

^ a ^ m rcing running righf 

i i. 1 1 own ni: rein 

Dl tu >ncret< expands an< 

a nd 1 ]} ndency to ( . on 

temp Tj ^ j >; ■(.) 

See I igure 



O M CONCRETE CONS T RICT10 N 



45 



When an opening in the floor slab is required for a stairway 
or other reason, be sure that the reinforcing is not placed as 
shown in Figure 38 but correctly as shown in Figure 39. 



LIS 



i i i 



l — i — r 



i — r 
i l 



I 

l 

I— I— 

I 

I 
i — »-i- 



l"T"| | ~1 
' I I I 



i 



LlJ_|J_|_a_^_LX 



I'M 



1 
I 

4 J 



I 



I I 



! ! I 

-i-rf 



U-L-^_4-— j — L -4— -j- 



! 



r 



4-r-r-t- 



! i 



i 



I i 








M l I l I ^li--l— I— L-v-l 

^•'li ! ! ! V-H-h$ 



rrri n 



r-r~ir 



_ -±A- _-_■ 

1 n -I--K-H 

rn""ii-l~J-r-Hr n?~ h1 , ti\ 






h 



__L1 



t1-t-|H 



l-L 



1 ', 



' '• \ 



I 



yr- 



i 






' i_i i i Tin T-T-1— trf 

!~! ' ; iijj j l_i ijjj 

i i ! ! ! ! iKr it i Hi 



-f-f-t-j-r-1-W-l-M-ll! 



. L 



i : i i 1:1: 



*— 



Fig, 38. — Wrong method. 



Fig. 39.— Right method. 



TABLE 6 
SAFE LOADS FOR CONCRETE SLABS 

Total Safe Loads, Uniformly Distributed, in Pounds per Square 

Foot, Slab Supported Along Two Sides 



Thick 

ness 

of Slab 
Inches 



4 
5 
6 



SPAN— IX FEET 



4 



6 



s 



433 






259 
360 
468 



164 




319 
414 
520 



107 
156 
218 
286 

362 



71 

106 
152 

203 
260 



10 



12 



27 

48 

75 

105 

139 



33 

52 
74 



Round Reinforcing Bars* 

Transverse Between 

Supports 



Yz in. — spaced 8K in 

IVi in 



spaced 

spaced 634 i 11 
spaced %% in 



2 in- 
Vi in - 
Vs in- 
Y% in. — spaced 7% in 



♦The amount of longitudinal or temperature reinforcing — parallel to supports— depends 
on area of slab. For small and medium size slabs 3 i in. round bars spaced 12 in. apart 
will be sufficient. 

Square Slabs (Supported Along Four Sides) 
Safe Load, Uniformly Distributed, in Pounds per Square Foot 



Thick- 
ness 
of Slab 
Inches 



o 

3 l A 
4 

4H 
5 



SIZE OF SLAB— IX FEET 



6x6 



150 

253 

378 



7x7 



8x8 



9x9 



100 

174 
264 
368 
498 



67 
123 

192 
268 
366 



45 

88 

140 

200 

278 



10x10 



28 

63 
104 
152 

212 



12x12 14x14 



30 
58 

9 
128 



2S 

50 

7 



2-Wav 
Round Reinforcing Barsf 



y% i n - 

i in. 
l A in. 

< 2 in. 
Y 2 in . 



spaced 7 " each way 
spaced h%" each way 

spaced 8^2" each way 
spaced 7^4" each way 
•spaced 634" each way 



tSquare slabs are reinforced in two directions, bars lying at right angles to each other; 
in other words, in a 3 in. thick square slab the reinforcing will consist of 2 systems of bars 
at right angles to each other and each system consisting of % in. round rods spaced 7-in. 
oq centers. 



46 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



Concrete Columns 

The loads from the beams and girders are carried to the 
■olumns which must be designed accordingly. 

( >ncre1 olumns of slender proportions should be avoided 
-the len| should not exceed fifteen times the diameter. 

J t ins or pi< may be built without reinforcement 

but good pr requires it for tfety m ruction and to 

UJ 1 t po eccentric loading, [n < of -ach 

(• lin iolumn would have a I i acti with one side 

[] tension. Reinfc ement should, tl refore, a nrays be 
pla 1 within two inches of the surface ot at the center. 

E nfor menl n osi 

verth i, or longitudinal rods; or 

I Is, h or spirals; or 

(3) a combii ion of these. 

L 1 reinfon nt is h< Id in pi e by means of 

ed at fr< uenl int( i /als; % inch wire hoops 

Q 12 inch horizontal^ i common pi ici 

]> f j >ui of longitudinal n n - i ru from 

2% to 4% oi ilunm ai 

' • ' circulai in ■ ■ i i the | s, bands, or 
u1, not b< V than \°/ ( oft! volum of concrete 

o* I. 

STEEL FOR REINFORCEMENT 

,nfor ' : md or IUAT bars or 

;ir j | >f 

] xl ; ■ | manui :tur< i . direct or from 

i i per ( r bai 

1 "' , with age in pri i th< Jl< 

i ) - if th buil 

r < - of t icturc and buy from 

in ' prop 

.. J n: 1: & » I f 1 J DA <] This 

L fI l^ ' ti o oi perhapa 

: - L • ; •• ' ' tb i t g h r o 1) t 



. \ CON RET E Co N I It I < llu 



STEEL BENDING MEET 






COLUMN STEEL 

VERTICAL 






COL \W<. 





G/RDER STEEL 



DOUBLE BEND BARS 




C& 
— K 



71 









rr 



STIRRUPS 



^ 

^ 



Sw 




tV<F&*W 



v 



__+ 



» » ■ ► 




1 1 



* 



ML 



KJ 






* 



f 



• 



— 



r^— 



■f 






i 



» » 



% 



(SI 



+— * 



s*jw 



-■j^ 









y 




*■ * 



i i » — i — * — 




*— » > f 



4 < > 











r\ J " 






la: 




^ 



48 



T HE A 'I LAS 11 A NDBOUK 






no cu ing of th ars on the job will be required. A typical 

t of tl st« 1 for a beam and girder floor is shown in the 
reel Bending Sin on page 4 

Before t el is received on the job, racks should be built 

in order that it can be >red for prop* r ch< eking; so that the 
pri r l< ngth bar can be found eded. As the steel is 

1 it >uld be measured and placed in the proper 
jtion in i he rack. 



Bending Steel 

Reinf ing bars up to 1% inch e i can 1 • bent cold by 
and. Alxn this e it will I i « i nt to use a power 

ortoh< t the 1 3 b< • bending I >ui t tie heat should 

ver more than a dull 

The mos1 mple device for bending bars is a bending tab] 

w) i Figu 40. This < isi a heavy tabli with 

h - pref- bly k into the gi md to m ire rigidity. 

The two plai s i \ are adjust' d to the proper position by 

i I tin two pla B" ar< a] i d to the table 

i the proper bion. The Lding ie done l>\ means of 
ipping a Ioj pe < r the end of th< rod to secure 

ti • • _. \\ • < n the blo< k- an for a certain 



Bending 

PIPE 




4"x4 



ysyfi s 




nmft 






^ 



2"P/PE i 6' ' 0"L0HQ 

Threaded at ends 
So That Coupling 
/s Turn id for 
Full length 



^^ — ^^— ^^^— ^— — - 



l2"jc/2"jrfPl 




4 BOLTS 




3<x3"*fl* 



Ha/uho 

HOLES 



6"r/2"*/PL 



DETAIL A 



DETAIL B 



h±' t> 



u 



tbe lob. 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



49 




Fig. 41. — Device 
for bending light 
bars to be used as 
hoops and stirrups. 



size of bend all bars in the building of these dimensions should 
be bent and the location of the bars painted on the end. 

The next step will be the bending of hoops for column 
reinforcing and stirrups for beams and girders. This material 
is usually M inch and is easily bent. The bars are first cut 
to the right length and the bends made by slipping a small 
pipe over the bar and bending in a small block as shown in 
Figure 41. Usually two may be bent at once. 

BENDING CIRCULAR STEEL 

For silos grain elevators and circular tanks it is necessary 
to bend the reinforcing steel in the form of hoops. In large 
diameter structures it is sufficient to bend the horizontal 
curved bars against the vertical steel. For small structures 
it will be necessary to bend it accurately to shape. One method 
is shown in Figure 42. The radius of the block should be less 
than half of the diameter of the hoops to allow for the spring 
in the steel It is not necessary that it be absolutely accurate, 
as the hoops can be sprung slightly without destroying the 
circular shape. The ends of the hoops should be securely 
tied together and the best method is by a wire cable clip or 
if these are not available, by lapping the ends 40 diameters 
and wrapping with wire. 



50 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 




Radial Block 



Fig. 42.— De- 
vice for bending 
steel bars in the 
form of hoops 
to be used as 
horizontal rein- 
forcing in silos, 
circular tanks 
and grain bins. 



ROLLER 



— ■ ■— ^m 



PLACING STEEL 

Column reinforcing is assembled previous to placing it in 
the column forms, that is, the hoops are wired to the vertical 
rods and the reinforcement thus completely assembled is 
placed in the form. The most convenient method of assem- 
bling is shown in Figure 43. 

Spiral reinforcing comes in the shape of roils, the coils being 
of any diameter required. Before placing in the column form 
the spirals must b attached to spacing bare of which there 
are usually three. It is usually better to order them attached 
to two spacers and shipped knocked down. When received 
on the job the spirals are opened up and the third spacing bar 
attached. 

In placing beam and 
girdle reinforcing it is usu- 
ally best to place stirrups 
and bars separately, the 

stirrups, of course, first. 
The stirrups are made with 
the two wings 30 that, they 
will occupy their correct 
pi m the beam with the 
bottom part about 1}4 

inches from the bottom of F,g t3 ^ or ^T^rS^ 





UN CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



51 








j! * c 
Stirrup Hfe*! 






4 
'1 



^* 



2z: 



31 =1 



4- 




Grooved Concrete 
Block to Space Bars 
/rt Bottom of Beam 



Staples 



Fig. 44. 
Stirrup holding 
main reinforc- 
ing bars up 
from the bottom 
of a beam. 




A Staples 
Slab Slab 

RatfFORCEME/iT 



Precast 

Concrete 
Block 




Fig. 45. 
Method o i 
bending-up slab 
bars over top 
of beam 




the form. The larger bars rest on these stirrups thus giving 
the required 1J^ inch of concrete below the rods for fireproofing 
as shown in Figure 44. In some cases the stirrups may not 
give the necessary support to the bars at the bottom and this 
can be taken care of by making small concrete blocks 1 
inches thick and placed in the bottom of the beam forms to 
support the bars. 

In placing the slab steel in beam and girder construction 
it is necessary to have some means of support to keep the 
slab bars near the top. This can be done by the use of special 
reinforcement chairs. These chairs can be purchased from 
dealers in reinforcing specialties or a concrete block supporting 
a bar as shown in Figure 45 can be used. 

In placing flat-slab steel it is necessary to support the steel 
over the column heads, at the approved height. This can 
be done by bending a bar in the form of a square and supporting 
it on pre-cast concrete blocks. The slab steel is then placed 
in the proper position and the necessary bends made by the 
use of a "hickey." 

A "hickey" is a "T shaped contrivance the upright portion 
made out of a *A inch round bar to which is welded a flat 



piece about 3 inches wide and 3^2 m ch thick. The length of 
the cross piece is governed by the length of the bend to be 
made. 






T 11 E A I l. \ s II \ N J> I - K 



TABLE 7 

Equivalent Spacing of Reinforcing Bars for 

Concrete Slabs 

To be u I J.. Substituting Om i Bs or Another Sizi 



rfl 




1 '-:it:- 


■ ■ i» 


J 


K* 


1 


; 8 


Bara 


1" 


i; 


1. 


H 


Rd. 


1 


ad. 




- Rd. 


8q. 


aa. 


Sq. 


J<«] 

1 8* 




































3 * 


1 


• 

4 

1 


• 

6M 














3 

It ^ 


: 




• 1 


6 


65a 










3 - 


• * 


3# 

4j* 


'J 
4& 

i | 


M', 


1 

i 




! 

7X 


7H 

8^ 
9 

9^ 












4 


4% 


6 


1 


s 


£ 










3 


i 


4 


6^ 




7 

- 


J" 


i 

9 

9 . 












i 




1 




S, 4 


*•** 












. 




i 

6 


6 


i 


s i 












• 1 1 






f. 


■ 


A 


4 














■i 




1 


8 


10 
















1 






















4 






tt i 


10 














'ft 


h 


• 


















3 * 


1 




. 


L 


















•1 


■ 


7 


Ql 
















k 


4 


I 


7H 


















- 


' 


*H 


) 
















■ 






• 










































* . 


1 


■ 





















r.xpiana»ior <> , ,, i llflllll j 

ti, » f i 

•q .1 r.. 

A 7 

li « Id be 






il 8[ % 



nul 



r . .,, " l "'f'-.. from , r paint 

on the form.- l,,,uJ<J , ,j 
, ordinary f , 

, P i»c, ,, ,.,,, , ad 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



53 



Joints in reinforcing steel are made by lapping the bars side 
by side a distance of 40 diameters — 20 inches for Y2 m ch round 
rods. 

The steel must be accurately placed as called for in the plans ; 
otherwise the concrete will not have the strength for which 
it was designed. Care must be taken, therefore, that the 
reinforcing steel is tied together so that it will not be dis- 
placed during the pouring of the concrete. This tying is 
done with No. 14 or No. 16 soft annealed iron wire. There 
are also many clip devices on the market for tying the inter- 
sections. 

TABLE 8 
WEIGHTS AND AREAS OF REINFORCING STEEL 

Sizes in Heavy Type Are Standard Sizes Stocked by Dealers 



SIZE 



Area 
(sq. in.) 



Va inch round bars 

J4, inch square bars . . 



% 

V2 

5 



inch round bars.. 

rich square bars . . . 




y 4 



7/« 



'8 



nch round bars, 
nch square bars 

nch round bars. 

nch square bars . . 



• ••••#* + *■* 



nch round bars 

nch square bars . . 



nch round bars 

noh square bars. . 



1 inch round bars. 
1 inch quare bars 



1 1 /% inch round bars . . . 

1V4 inch square bars 



1 x /i inch round bars . . . 

IVi inch square bars 



Sq. in. 

.0491 

.0625 

.1105 

.140t i 

.1963 
.2500 

.3068 

.390) 

.4418 

.5625 

.6013 

.7656 

.7854 
1.0000 

.9940 
1.2656 

1.2272 
1.5625 



Lbs. per 
Foot 



Ft. per Ton 
of 2,000 lbs.* 



Lbs. 

.167 
.213 

.376 

.478 

.668 
.850 

1.043 

1 .328 

1.502 
1.913 

2.044 

2.603 

2.670 
3.400 

3.380 

4.303 

4.172 
5.313 



Feet 

12,000 

9,390 

5,320 

4,180 

3,000 
2,365 

1,912 

1,508 

1,331 

1,046 

978 

768 

749 
588 

592 
465 

479 
376 



* Reinforcing is generally sold by the ton. This column gives the number of feet of each 
sice bar in one ton. 






T i i HANI 00 K 



CHAPTER III 
FORMS FOR CONCRETE 









| 









I 



n 









. h 
f 1 I* , ( j 

' j ' o that they ma 

,t in i 

! which 

I ■' ' tne inw 

I, but I i r< an I |j 






■ 









t j 



I | , 






t 



alt ho 



' la flit 









i t 









i , 1 1 



It 

1 1 ( i • 
rid h )j t) 



, 















i 






■ 






I uinher f r Forms 

11 

W 









I »ai 



. t r 1 






J MJ 






J 

tf 

| , , 









. 






i j 

\ 1 1 J 

i « 

SSftrv in order that t fi< 

It. 

I u I . f i 

Bui 







ill 






I 












i 



j iruii 






f , 



t 



i 









* i 



a* a 



1 






■ 


















1 1 












•» f 



:-, 






m 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



55 



It is seldom economical to rework second-hand lumber for 
forms. Old lumber must be pulled apart and nails drawn, 
after which it must be carefully cleaned. Even then it will 
usually have so much concrete adhering that it will dull tools 
very rapidly. It costs about twice as much to construct forms 
of old lumber. New lumber will be found cheaper in the end. 

The thickness of the lumber varies according to its use. For 
short spans between supports, such as floor slabs and wall 
forms, 1 inch stock is commonly used; for columns either 1 

inch or V/i inch, 
according to the 
spacing of the 
yokes; for beam 
sides and bottoms 
2 inch. Heavier 
material is used for 

beams, as they 
must be strong and 

rigid to withstand 
the handling they 
receive when moved 
from floor to floor 
and to hold the 
weight of concrete 
between supports 
without deflection. 
In ordinary dressed 
lumber it is cus- 
tomary to give the 
sizes of the rough 
lumber from which 
it is worked up. 
and in the figures 
in this series sizes 
have been so noted. 
Thus 2" D 4 
means 2-inch lum- 




Fig. 46. — A "Jenny-Winch," by means of which light 



loads can be hoisted with a hand windlass. 



i. e., both sides and edges. This 
2-inch thickness to about \Y% inches. 



ber dressed 4 sides ; 
dressing cuts down the 



56 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



Removal of Forms 

Any rules for time of removal of forms must be approximate 
and must be used in conjunction with experience and judg- 
ment, but those given below by Taylor and Thompson, in 
their book, "Concrete Costs, " will serve as a guide: 

"Walls in mass work: One to three days, or until the con- 
ret e wall will bear pressure of the thumb without inden- 
tation." 



' Thin wails: In summer, two days; in cold weather, five 

days,'' 

"Columns: In summer, two days, in cold weather, four 
days, provided the girders are shored to prevent any appre- 
ciable weight reaching the columns." 

"Slabs up to seven foot spans: In summer, six days; in 
cold weather, tv weeks." 

"Beam and girder sides: In summer, six days; in cold 
weather, two weeks." 

"Beam and girder bottoms and lonji -pan <lal>-: In summer, 
ten days or two weeks; in cold weather, three weeks to one 
month." 

These times as given are conservative. Column and wall 

forms are often stripped within twenty-four hours, and girders 
and floor slabs in three da\ - but all floor work must be 
properh -hored for at least twenty-eight days, as ii must not 
on!} support its own weight but thai of the construction above 
t. 

If properly constructed and with ordinary care taken in 

1 ripping and L;indling, form- maybe used ten or twelve times 
in building construction. Tl will cover pra ically any 

stru • J: they are to be used more often than this, the 
forms mus1 be especially well made and more than ordinary 
we used in str ping. In this way they may be used as 
r my as fifi • en times. 



Clearance 



Forms must be d< gned so that they can be easily removed. 
Tl»< - alw will be slight ovem of the forms due t 



O N C NCKETE CONS T K I C T J U N 



57 



_ 



4?5^E 






i 



^vy 1 



wwvvwwv 



sn 



Before Filuhg 










After F/llmq 
Wrong Method. 



& 



i 



// 






rr 



Before Filling 



FFTT-t^^t^t^ 



Fig. 47 



H wv 




AFTER F/lL/rfG 



Right Method 



the weight of the concrete. It is, therefore, necessary to give 
particular care to the joints made by the different units of 
the forms and allow sufficient clearance for any movement of 
the forms. This is well illustrated in the joint where a floor 
panel rests on a beam side. The panel should have a beveled 
edge and only project about half way onto the beam side. If 
the edge of the panel is made flush with the inside face of the 
beam before the form is filled, it will be found to be projecting 
into the concrete of the beam when the time comes to strip it, 
due to the sides of the beam spreading slightly from the weight 
of the concrete. Figure 47 shows the right and wrong ways 
to make such connection. 

The upper figures show the forms before filling ana the 
lower figures the position the beam sides take due to the pres- 
sure of the concrete. 



Foundation and Wall Forms 



a 



The construction of foundation and wall forms is clearly 
hown in Figures 48 and 49, on the following page. In most 
cases it is necessary to provide both an inner and an outer 
form, because the earth side of the excavation will not stand 
up firmly. Both types of foundation wall-forms are shown 
however. The sectional wall-form shown in Figure 52 is 
best used where only a small amount of wall is to be built. 
Steel sectional forms are better suited to continued use where 
a considerable amount of wall is called for. 



58 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 




Fig. 48. 
A wall form for 
foundation 
walls and cellar 
walls built in 
firm ground, in 
which the earth 
wide of the ex- 
cavation will 
land uprigir 
Great care must 
be exercised in 
filling this form, 
so as not to 
knock earth 
into the fresh 
concrete. 






Fig. 49. 
Form for foun- 
dation and cel- 
lar w T a!l located 
in ground which 
is not firm' — in 
which case both 
inside and out- 
side forms ar 
necessary, Th 
form is more 
enerally used, 
r jan the fori 
bown abov 
In most cases 
the earth sic 

f the excava- 
ion will sloj 

back at an angle 
instead of 
standing u 
vertically 
shown in the 
cut. 




Spreader- 



Wire Tie—— 



Block to 
holdfo^m^ 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



59 




Fig. 50. 
Form for sec- 
tional wall. 
Notice dovetail 
formed in wall 
already poured 
for the purpose 
of holding sec- 
tions of wall in 
line. 



Fig. 51. 
Wall form for 
wall above 
ground. Notice 
that wall below 
ground is poured 
in trench. 



5 fake 



m 




i 






Spacing Block 




i'Bo/t Stop Board* 



/"Boards 




Fig. 52. 
Sectional wall 
form for carry- 
ing wall up ver- 
t i c a 1 1 y with 
minimum am- 
ount of lumber. 



Nut and Washer-' 



60 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



Column Forms 

Square and octagonal column forms are generally made of 
wood, while round column forms are usually of steel. Columns 
decrease in size from the lower to the upper stories and the 
forms must be designed so that they can be easily reduced to 
allow for this. 

All square columns should have the edges beveled as it is 
difficult to get a perfectly sharp corner, and sharp corners are 
easily knocked off. When an especially good appearance is 
desired, the corners are rounded as shown in Figure 53 a E". 






C 



B 



A 



D 





rZKJ»<$ BLOCJC 



E 



F 



Fit Various types ol uelid forms. 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION til 



When the forms are cleaned before concreting, the rubbish 
will be swept into the columns, and clean-out holes should be 
left in the bottom of the column forms and should be of ample 
size to allow thorough cleaning. The pieces of board removed 
for clean-out hole should be nailed to the form so that it will 
be ready to put back in place. In some cases it will be found 
easier to erect the column with three sides fastened together 
leaving the fourth out until the reinforcement is placed. This 
is usually necessary when column reinforcing is more than 
one story high, or when the reinforcing projects very far above 
the floor. Otherwise, it is preferable to assemble the column 
form complete and lift it into place. Exterior columns are 
usually built in place, one side at a time on account of the 
danger of the form getting away from the workmen and falling 
off the buildin 

There are several types of square column forms which have 
become practically standardized in building construction. The 
most common is that shown in Figure 53. The sheathing is 
lj^-inch T. & G. D 2 S, and yokes are 4-inch x 4-inch yellow 
pine. The bolts should be at least J/g-inch, as smaller stock 
will be bent too easily by the wedges, and frequent straighten- 
ing will be required. 

In this column form two of the sides are made with the yokes 
flush with the edge of the sheathing. The other two sides 
have the yokes projecting at least eight inches beyond the 
sheathing, giving room for the driving of a wedge between the 
bolt and the yoke. The reduction in the size of this column 
is by taking off a strip along one edge of the sides which do 
not have the yokes projecting and by taking a strip off one of 
the boards on the sides having projecting yokes. Then new 
bolt holes are either bored in the yokes, or packing strips are 
placed on the yokes for the wedges to bear against. If there 
is a boring machine on the job, the yokes should have a series 
of holes bored in them before they are fastened to the column 
sides so that it will not be necessary for the carpenters to 
bore them by hand. 

Forms for octagonal columns are made as shown in Figure 
53 — "F." This column is identical with the one shown in "A" 
except that pieces are inserted in the corners to give the 




62 



T H L ATLAS hi U b U U 1\ 



TABLE 9 
SPACING OF YOKES FOR COLUMNS 
How to use Table. — 1 o j mi I s for a 24* l v column 

10' i hi I up 1 1 1 1 1 from i ' lim on 

ill b — M " for I n . L6 f i«M aexl 



r l) 

LARGES"" DIMENSION OF COLUMN IN INCHES 




K. : ' 4 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 63 



column eight sides. The flare is made at the top of the column 
by fitting in triangular pieces of wood. 

Since fresh concrete is practically liquid and over twice 
as heavy as water, the column form must be designed to 
withstand the bursting pressure of the concrete. This will 
make it necessary to have the yokes closer together at the 
bottom than at the top. 

In place of bolts, rods with a malleable iron clamp fastened 
in place with a set screw are often used for form work. These 
clamps may be obtained from supply houses. The clamp is 
slipped over the rod and brought to a firm bearing by a device 
furnished by the makers of the clamps. Then the set screw 
in the clamp is tightened, holding the clamp in place. 

In the same figure is shown a method of clamping columns 
by using a chain. The chain is hooked around the column 
as tight°as possible and the slack taken up with wedges. 

Table 9 gives spacing of yokes for various sizes and heights 
of columns. When column forms are very wide, larger yokes 
must be used or bolts placed through the center of the column. 

In place of bolted wood yokes, many builders employ the 
manufactured metal column clamps of which there are a 
number of tvpes available on the market. These metal clamps 
are designed to permit quick installation and removal and are 
adjustable for various sizes of column. 

Exterior column forms require different treatment as one 
side must project over the edge of the building. Such a 
column is illustrated in Figure 54. The two bolts shown at 
the top of the form are left in the concrete with the end- 
projecting. To these bolts are fastened blocks to support 
the overhanging sides of the form. The bolts are removed 
later by turning out with a wrench. Stud bolts are put in the 
floor, when it is soft, to which blocks are attached for bracing 
the form. The blocks may be slotted to allow for adjustment. 
The brace is nailed directly to the block. In these forms the 
outside piece is erected first and braced and the other side 
placed afterward. 

Round columns are usually built with steel forms and heads. 
These forms are usually hired for the life of a job and the 



64 



THE A T LAS HA.NDB O K 



erection and stripping done by the company supplying the 
forms. They are used mainly in the flat slab construction. 
Tie s ell is of sheetsteel held with clamps and the head is 
made in sections to allow for reduction. 



Forms for Beam and Girder Floor Systems 

Forms for beams and girder floors vary somewhat. This 
variation depends upon whether the beam and girder forms 
are to be stripped in one piece or the sides are to be removed 
and the bottoms left in place until the shores are removed. 




& Jruo 3<u-r* 



Fig .. 
I rior colurj 
1 rm. 
method I 

ling 

, • • i i 

cane c 
t ted to floi. 



1 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



65 



TeLMPQAASY J/KEADEJe 



Chamfer, 
St/&j* 



7kMPO£At& 
SPXEADERS 



X'0*?5 



Chamfer 



m Open J MO 




7ehpo£ajzy Cleat 



Girder Form 



Beam Form 



f/LLEft Piece 




Cleat 




Method op I^khothenino 
gir.der. ok beam fqrj*t 
fo/z £ stalled. columh3 




Fig. 55- — Beam and 
girder construction . 
Slab, beam and girdeT 
forms for use when tl 
forms are removed as a 
unit. Figure 56 shows 
these forms assembled. 



Slab Panel 




66 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



Removable Beam Forms 

If beam forms are to be removed as one piece, the}' must be 
strong enough structurally to stand stripping, hoisting, and 
re-erection. In such cases the material is usually 2-inch 
lumber. If the bottoms are left in place, the sides can be 
made of lighter material. 

Column forms must be designed to withstand the bursting 
pressure of wet concrete but beam forms are subjected to 
little bursting pressure, and mainly must possess strength 
and rigidity. Forms for most lengths and sizes of beams will 
vary little in design, since strength and rigidity will be taken 
care of by the number of supporting posts. 

Figure oo shows the construction of beam forms, girder 

forms and floor slab panel forms that are to be -tripped and 

handled as a unit. The material for the beams and girders 

s 2-incL stock dressed four -ides. It should be as wide as 

possible, making the bottom in one piece to avoid the nece— ity 

of cleats ! ross the bottom, which are objectionable in handling 

iue to their catching on obstruction ■ The beam bottom 

hould be the width of the beam and the sides should lap over 

the bottom. 

The side cleats are of 1-inch by 6-inch material, spaced 
about 3 feet apart. The sides are fastened I the but torn by 
nailing. Alon^ he cleats is nailed a piece of 1-inch by 4-inch 
to support the spreaders of the floor j neb The cross pieces 
shown on top are tacked on when the form is being handled 
to prevent the side from caving in. 

Girder form- re the same as beam forms except that the 

ides are notched to r« ceive the beam fori Mon care must 

>e taken in handling tl m. ag they are m aker, Hue to these 

cuts. Tempoi cleats alwaye should be nailed acrx the 

beam opening while they are being handle* 1. 

Exterior 1 and girder forn [uir* special at non 

ac< lint of the difl ulty of bracing the exterior side. < >ne 
method of doing thk is own in Fig. 54. 

8 ab pan< are usually made of %-inch material, tongued 
and grooved. Tl are cl< lied t< ther with 2x4's, which 
a. erve a- len 






ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



67 



Fig. 56 shows the assembling of the forms shown in Fig. 55. 
The beam and girder forms rest on blocks on the top yokes 
of the columns. The ends of the beam and girder bottoms are 
flush with the column forms. The end of the sides of the girder 
or beam forms is made of a piece that is loose, so that it can 
be easily removed to facilitate stripping. As the columns 



8 



Ct£AjeA#Cfj£ 



3- 






5 



0SAM 

Form — \ 




B£AM 

Sorrow 




CL£A€AN^ 



5/os 




% 



fioo*. Pahem 



3£Art S'OE. 



DETAIL AT b 



DETAIL AT C 



DETAI L AT A 




Fig. 56. 



detail of Posts 

Forms for beam and girder floor system, showing forms which are to "be 

completely removed as one unit. 




% I H E 1 J HANDE u J 



grov> hi 'Jo I to At ben out i he 

q and r f< \\ ii in tin bail in I ig 55. 

T] am id in and gii I own in Fig. 5< 

oii A The beam bottom with tl < rior of 

id resi jiaii- i he gin r sid< 

The I m sides an I to nnw- . • , f J <i cfcam- 

q two ed Note the detail ' which bows fchi 

ttOlll ( 

Part ular ti< ! to the deta \ "B and 

: ! t ii< e ni for 1 b< proper 

th <■! • ilJ ih. -lit 

thi >n which ji uj|) i bo )m.\ « nt, du< 

1 of t 



i ' 



Stripping Order 
of Beam and Girder Forms Which Are Removed as a Unit 

(1) ] wedges. 

(2) J 'jh bo] 

I* of id girder* 

ud r 1 • ih . r 

J ' i and j. del 

i an J of < pi< 

r theuj be < io e 



J rem< i i foi 

j 

»r 

- ' r I - am an 

j | 

id < 

< i th 

' * ' or 



- 



\ . 



alh au 

xr< 



o n CONC R ETE CO PRUI riO 



3 




TEMPOJtAZV Sp*£AOZ* 



K Cham rex* 

STKJP 



3tA/*i Ope#t«o 




T£/*PO*A£Y CLC* 



GIRDER. FORM 




Beam Form 



Slab Panel 




Fig -'—Beam and gir. *f" " 

■otton -main in place .m » a *m 







70 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



The beam and girder bottoms are of 2-inch materia], dressed 
four sides, while the sides are of lighter material, such as %- 



inch T. & G. sheathing. 



The beams and girder sides are held tight to the bottom by 

continuous strips nailed to the heads of the posts. 



S/£>£ 

Colo, 

£/&£. 

DETAIL ATX 




232S5,o r*'cM*»o* 



Yom* 







•«. • 



DETAIL AT b 



ClfAAAAfC£ 




"/ham S/dz: 



Detai l at "C ' 




Detail of Posts 












. r flr 



t 1 



J. - 






deta 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



71 



Stripping Order 

of Beams and Girder Forms in Which Bottoms 

Remain in Place and Sides Are Removed 



Remove column wedges 
Remove column bolts. 
Remove column sides. 



Remove strips holding lower edge of beam and girder 



Remove floor panel purlins. 

Remove girder sides. 

Remove beam sides. 

Remove slab panels. 

When floor has gained sufficient strength the beam and 



(1 
(2 

(3 

sides 

(5 
(6 

(7 
(8 

girder bottoms are removed with the shoring posts. 

Flat Slab Forms 

Flat slab forms are built on the principle of supporting the 
entire weight of the concrete on the shoring posts, the columns 
taking none of the load. 

In Fig. 59, the posts are of 4-inch x 4-inch material carrying 
longitudinal 4-inch x 4-inch stringers. These posts are about 
5 feet apart each way. The stringers are fastened to the posts 
with cleats. The posts are braced in each direction with 
1-inch material. On top of the stringers are laid 4-inch x 4-inch 
cross pieces upon which are laid the floor panels. The cross 
pieces and panels are not nailed to the stringers. 

The forms for the depressed heads rest directly on the 
stringers and their construction is shown in the figure. They 
are made in two sections for ease in handling. The column 
forms are built up either in wood or steel and have no part in 
supporting the slab forms. 

The slab panels are of ^-inch T. & G. material made up 
in sections about 5 feet long and about 2 feet wide. 



72 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 




5lA6 fiWULS 



Bottom View of Drop Panel 



Section AA 



Fig. 59. — Flat Blab floor forms. Column heads rest on the stringers. 

Fig. 60 shows an< her method of constructing flat slab 
forms. The depre ed hea 3 are supported on a separate 
am rk so that it can be easily taken apart andre-erecti 

The posts are 4-inch x 4-inch and carrj 4-inch x 6-inch 
string* . ( tli« e stringers are laid 3-inch x 4-inch ci 
pieceg to hold the floor pant . Th e panels are made th 
length betwe< i column < 1 1 * and abouj on< [uarter \\ 

The Le of the d< n l head i- formed by a pie< 
ailed to the floor panels, \ iwii more leeway if column* 
not exactly <•< ateri 

The pages 74 and 75 give tl \ po 

ringt and joists for flat sh forms. 



ON CONCKfclE CONSTRUCTION 







Fig. 60. — Forms 
for flat slab floor 
system in which 
column heads are 
supported on a 
frame or scaffold. 



Temporary 
Brace 



_^ Permanent 

FRAME TO SUPPORT DROP HEAD brace 



Forms for Special Floor Systems 

In addition to the flat-slab and slab-and-beam type of con- 
crete floors, there are several special types involving the use 
of clay filler-tile and reinforced concrete. Also permanent 
and removable steel "dishpan" forms, etc. The methods of 
making forms and supports for the floor systems are not given 
here as details are furnished by their manufacturers. 






r H K A T L A I 



TABU ) 

a» Tl > »•• of Slabt K. td tQ 1>> Number 

, I . m I - 13 14 a, Mi IS 







I 




- 


I 






n 


u 


* 


■ 




3 
4 




,.. 








<> 


1 






: 

8 




« 


1 








14 


'.< 








1 1 » 


■ 


10 






e 






12 








1 









■IAHI.E 11 



r.i> 



1 I 






4 

M J 



] ; 






> 



• 



• 



4*4- h 






14 



>■ 



J 



J 4 

4 

1 






» \ pi ; , | I 






• I 



<- 



I 








TAl-.l I 1 
Spacing of Joift* 









!»*• 








4 ! 








. 









- > 






> 


i 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



* 



5 



TABLE 13 

Size and Spacing of Joists on 6-Foot Spans 



Slab No. 


Size 
Inches 


Spacing 
Inches 


Slab No. 


Size 
Inches 


Spacing 
Inches 


1,2 / 

3 { 

V 

4,5,6 { 


2x6 

2x8 
2x6 
2x8 
2x6 
2x8 


16 
24 
15 
24 
14 
24 


7,8 ( 

9, 10, 11, / 
12, 13... \ 

14, 15, 16, / 
17 i 

A. 1 m m * m # • 1 


2x6 
2x8 
2x6 
2x8 
2x8 
2x10 


12 
24 
12 
21 
21 

18 



TABLE 14 

Minimum Sizes of Girders Across Posts on 4-Foot Span, 

n of Joists 4 Feet or 6 Feet 




Slab No. 
1,2 

3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
8, 9, 10, 11, 

12, 13 

14 



Size, Inches 



2 x 10, 3 x 8 or 4 x 6 
2 x 10 or 3 x 8 
2 x 10, 4 x 8 or 6 x 6 



Slab No 



15 

16 

17 



Size, Inches 



3 x 10, 4 x 8, 6 x 6 

3 x 10 or 4 x 8 

2xl2,3xl0or4x8 



TABLE 15 

Minimum Sizes of Girders Across Posts on 6-Foot Span, 

Span of Joists 4 Feet or 6 Feet 



Slab No 



1... 

2,3 
4, 5 
6,7 
8, 9 
10. 



Size f Inches 




2 x 12 or 3 x 10 
3 x 12, 4 x 10 or 6 x 8 

3 x 12, 4 x 10 or 6 x 8 
2 x 14 or 3 x 12 



Slab No. 
11 

1 — 1 l'~> ■ * • • 

14 

15 

16 

17 



Size, Inches 



3x 12 

3 x 12 or 6 x 9 

4 x 12 or 6 x 9 
3 x 14, 4 x 12, 6 x 9 

3 x 14, 4 x 12 

3 x 14, 4 x 12 or 6 x 10 








Till HAND ""I 



\ 










A 

M 



^» s 



1*4 



CON' n SPACE 







WLDGl 



1 . WAlLPAh 



DFTAJL A 



fOIHtlN6 






y 



I kM 



g 






• \ 



1 












1 









Mi ^M 









Wall Form* 









. , 






i 












ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



- i 



of two pieces of 1-inch x 4-inch material with 1-inch separator 
i through the stan dards and the forms are run ^-inch 

holts. The forms are kept the proper distance apart by small 
sticks cut to a length equal to the thickness of the wall. These 
sticks are knocked out as the concrete is poured. Another 
method of keeping the forms apart is by using pre-cast cylin- 
ders of concrete with a hole for the bolt through the center, 
l tiese blocks remain in the concrete. 

Various patented types of removable ties and spacers fur 
wall forms may be purchased. The object of all these is to 
prevent any metal at the surface of the concrete and to elimi- 
nate any direct passage through the wall which might cause 
leaks m the case of tanks, swimming pools and reservoirs. 

Fig. 61 also shows the method of connecting wall and column 
forms when they are poured at the same time and also the 
construction of curtain-wall forms. The small detail shows 
the forms for the window sills when they are poured after 
the walls. 

Sometimes in order to give stiffness to the forms, horizontal 
4 x4's are placed against the standards shown in the sketch 
m the lower left hand corner of Figure 61. 



Forms for Fireproofing of Steel 

Forms used in fireproofing of steel with concrete are usually 
much lighter than those used for structural concrete, since 
cinder concrete, which weighs far less than stone concrete, is 
generally employed for fireproofing; because the amount of 
< oncrete to be supported is less; and because there is usually 
no load on the concrete due to building operations. 

The forms are usually 1-inch material. Instead of being 
supported by shores, they are hung from the steel members 
This is shown in Fig. 62. Heavy wire is looped under 1 x 4 
stringers, the ends of the wire being bent over the flange of 
the I-beam. On these stringers rest the beam forms. The 
purlins for the slab forms rest on "L" shaped members made 
by nailing two boards together along the edge. The forms 
are released by cutting the wire under the stringer. 




78 



IKE ATLAs HA.NDBOuK 



loose Boards or Panels 



r 



*A~S*'AL 




'#£ Til 



Slabs Between Beams 



2: 




\r~/*AA TERtA L 







w&toppeve 
Sides fpo* 



*Z Tt£ GOMG C I 9 

IBE* " * * & U*0E* U LA r 



Columns 



GlRJDERS 



g. 62. — Forms for use where concrete is employed to fireproof structural 

~te*l members 



The forms for fireproofing columns art shown in Fig. 62, 
ad usually have 2-inch x 4-inch yokes, or the -ides are nailed 
together at the edge^. 



Stripping of Forms 

Forms must be constructed bo t! at they can be removed 

without injur; to tl mcrete and. if they are to be lie 1 more 

than once, without injury to themseh Particular care 

lis be i taken in designing the form- here shown so that the 

foregoing is possible. 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



79 



The order in which the stripping of the forms should be done 
for beam and girder construction is given on page 68. The 
column sides are first removed. After removing the blocking 
between the column yokes and the beam bottoms, and the 
key pieces between the column sides and beam sides, of th 
type shown in Fig. 58, the bottom of the column form should 
be pried loose. After being moved out for 6 or 8 inches, the 
column side will come free at point "B" and the space occup d 
by the key piece will give room enough to allow the column 
side to be removed. In the type shown in Fig. 56, the column 
ides will slide by the beam forms without the removal of the 
key pieces. 

The next step is to remove the purlins unless they form the 
panel cleats. This can best be done from a scaffold on horses. 

It is then necessary to remove the girder forms. As these 
are heavy, the best method is shown in Fig. 63. This ver\ 
simple rig consists of 4 pieces of 4-inch x 4-inch used in pairs. 
The 4-inch x 4-inch sticks are cut just a little longer than the 



i ■ j'» » 







4 la'. 



Cu*r 



Fig. 63. — Strip- 
ping rig for holding 
slab and girder 
forms when they 
are stripped from 
concrete 



Stripping Rig for Beam and Girder FORMS 



height between the floor and ceiling slab. Through the upper 
end, at a point just below the girder forms, are bored hole- 
i o take a 1 -inch rope. This is knotted against one of the stick- 
to which is nailed a cleat. The sticks are then erected with 
the bottoms wedged tight as shown in Fig. 63, and the rope 
pulled taut am fastened to the cleat. The girder shores are 
then removed. If the girder form sticks, it can be readily 
loosened by using goose neck bars as shown in Fig. 63. The 
girder forms are then dropped on to the ropes and lowered 



so 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



to the floor by releasing the ropes from around the cleats 
I he girder shores are then replaced. 

The same operation is used in stripping the beam and slab 
forms. Ihe same general method is used in stripping beai 
and girder forms where the beam and girder bottoms are lefl 
in place. In this case, the continuous strip on top of the post^ 
is first removed and then the beam and girder sides are pried 
loose, falling on to the ropes. 



Fig. I — Strip- 

g rig employ. 

! supporting flat 

ib forms when 

<-y are stripped 
irom 



clot 




Stripping Rig for flat slab forms 




— Exai 

\y 7 



US» J] 



<] i j J 



all • ■ 






jal i-fOsiUou. 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 81 



A similar rig is used for stripping flat slab forms as shown 
in Fig. 64. The sticks are cut a little longer than the story 
height with the result that any weight on the ropes serves 
to wedge the sticks together. In stripping the flat slab forms 
the permanent shores should be placed before the form shores 
are removed. In order that the panels can be removed when 
the permanent shores are in place, a small section of the panel 
is left loose along the joint where the shore is to go. Then 
the stripping rig is erected and the shores, longitudinal and 
cross stringers removed and the floor slabs pulled down. 

In the type of forms shown in Fig. 59, the forms for the 
depressed heads are removed at the same time as the slab 
\ panels, while in Fig. 60, the scaffold holding the depressed 
head forms is removed first. 

The main features of this stripping rig is that the forms are 
not injured in stripping and if, when removing the shores 
some beam or slab panel should fall, the workmen will not be 
injured, as the forms will be caught by the ropes. 



Circular Forms 

Circular forms are of two types: movable forms, and sta- 
tionary forms. 

In making the movable forms, pieces of lumber are cut and 
nailed together as shown in Fig. 66 and then lined with 
galvanized iron so as to form a smooth, even surface. The 
forms are generally laid out on a floor, or level piece of ground, 
by means of a stake at the center and the use of a compass 
stick with holes at each end, the distance between being equal 
to the radius of the circle. The hole at one end is used for 
fastening the stick to the stake and the hole at the other end 
is for a pencil to mark the circle. 

In constructing tall tanks or silos, the forms are wedged in 
place, and filled with concrete. When the concrete is suffi- 
ciently hard the wedges are loosened and the forms raised, 










f I 



|v 





















I 






»A* 



1R M 
A I IfkO '■ 











4 




MA 















f 






m 












' 


















! 



I 






| 







ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



83 



TABLE 16 

Sizes and Quantities for Circular Forms of Various Diameters 



INNER FORM 



OUTER 
FORM 



Diam. 



10 ft 

12 ft. 
14 ft. 
16 ft. 
18 ft, 
20 ft . 



Number 

of 

•ctions 
in 
Inner 
Form 



Length 
A 



6 

8 
8 
8 
8 
10 



5'- 0" 

4'- 6%" 

5'- 4" 

6'- 1" 

6'-10H 

6'- 2" 



Length 
B 



4'- 7J4" 

4 r - \y 2 " 

v-ny 2 " 

5'- W 

6'- ~y 2 " 

o'-10" 



20-Gauge 
Gal. Iron 

36 In. Wide, 
Length of 

Each Piece 



'.' 



4'-8H* 
5 '-6" 

6'-3" 
7'-0%" 

6 '-3" 



18-Gauge 
Gal. Iron 

;i0 In. \\ 1*-. 

2 Pes. 

Length of 

Each Piecr 



18'- 3" 
21'- 5' 
24'- 7" 
27'- 9" 
30'-10H 
34'- 0" 



Material for 14-Foot Silo Form 



") pieces 

1 piece 
4 pieces 
6 pieces 
4 pieces 

2 pieces 
8 pi eees 



2x12x10 feet , for ribs. 

2x1 2x 6 feet, for ribs. 

2x 6x12 feet, for studding. 

2x 4x12 feet, for studding. 

2x 6x10 feet, for connections. 



3 pieces 2x6x8 feet, for contin- 
uous door form. 

2 pieces 2x2x8 feet, for contin- 
uous door form. 
64 pieces Yi^Vi m - carriage bolts. 



18 gauge galvanized iron 3 feet wide, 24 feet 7 inches long. 
20 gauge galvanized iron 3 feet wide, 5 feet 6 inches long. 




Fig. 67. 



Inside section of circular form in place. Outside form will be used above 

ground level. 




84 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



Greasing Forms and Moulds for Concrete 

Construction 

The object of greasing wood forms is twofold — first to 
waterproof the wood to prevent it from absorbing the water 
in the concrete, causing swelling and warping; and, secondly . 
to leave a thin skin of the grease on the surface of the forms 
to prevent concrete from entering the pores of the wood and 
adhering to it. 

Forms should be thoroughly swept before the reinforcing 
placed and kept clean until the concrete is poured. If 




Fig. 6fc. — Or ing form-panels before placing in pc 



there is dirt or sawdusl od tin wood the grea will cover thie 
and not c I the surface of the wood. 

Them< satisfacl ryg the mineral oils ad] f~ 

fin- Crude or fuel oil is th< ipestandisg dory, [til 

irer, too thin, t t u Id w ither, and best mi 

h } )leum gr< • su as n va lint Tl i rud< 

i r fuel oil ifi i - i with th<- g ise i tl portion of one 

I art of gre; $e t thr< or i ore parts i oil. Tl portio 

will vary a< ing to I rutin- n p ing i 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



85 



quired in warmer weather. Other materials used are asphalt 
paints, varnish, and boiled linseed oil. For metal forms the 
cheapest and best grease is plain crude or fuel oil without the 
addition of the heavier greases. 

TABLE 17 

Table of Board Feet in Various Sizes and Lengths of Lumber 
For Use in Estimating Forms and other Timber Work 



Size of 
Timber 

in Inches 






1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

IK 

v ; 

_> 
2 

2 

_> 

2 
2 

2 

., 

.' 

2' > 

3 

3 
3 

3 

3 
3 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
8 
8 
S 



x 
\ 

X 
X 
X 



2 

3 

4 

o 

6 

8 

x 10 

12 

x 14 

x 16 

20 

x 4 
x 6 

8 
x 10 
x 12 

4 

\ 6 

x 8 
10 

1 

x 14 

x 16 
x 12 
x 14 

x lf> 

x 6 
x 8 
x 10 
x 1 
x 14 
x 16 
x 4 
x 6 
x 8 
x 10 
x 12 
x 14 
x 6 
x 8 
x 10 
x 12 
xl4 
x 10 
x 8 
x 10 
x 12 



10 



3% 

5 




3 

8% 

10 

11% 
13% 

16% 
5 

7% 

10 

121 j 

15 

6% 
10 

13 % 
16% 
20 
23% 
26- 
25 
29 ! 

33 M 
15 

20 

25 

30 

35 

40 

13% 

20 

26% 

33 % 

40 

46% 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

53% 

66% 

80 



LENGTH OF PIECE IN FEET 



12 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
8 
10 
12 

14 

16 

20 
6 
9 

12 

15 

IS 
8 
12 
16 
20 
24 
28 
32 

30 
35 
40 
18 
24 
30 
36 
42 
48 
16 
24 
32 
40 
48 
56 
36 
48 
60 
72 
84 

r>6 

04 

80 
90 



14 



2% 
3% 

4% 

7 

n% 

14 

16% 
18*4 

23 % 

7 

io% 

14 

17', 
21 

9% 
14 

18% 

23 % 

28 

32% 

37% 

35 

40 * 

46% 

21 

28 

35 

42 

49 

56 

18% 

28 

37 % 

46 % 

56 

65 % 

42 

56 

70 

84 

98 
112 

74% 

93 
112 



16 




4 
5% 

6% 

8 

10% 
13% 
16 
18% 

21% 

26% 
8 

12 

16 

20 

24 

10 % 

16 

21 % 

26% 

32 

37 % 

42 % 

40 

46- 

53 1 i 

24 

32 

40 

48 

56 

64 

21 % 
32 

42 = 3 

53 X 

64 

74% 

48 

64 

80 

96 

112 

128 

55% 

I 

128 



18 



3 

4% 
6 

7% 
9 

12 

15 

18 

21 

24 

30 
9 

13% 

18 

22% 

27 

12 

18 

24 

30 

36 

42 

4S 

45 

52 ! ■> 

60 

27 

36 

45 

54 

63 

72 

24 

36 

48 

60 

72 

84 

54 

72 

90 
108 
1 26 
114 


120 

144 



20 



3% 
5 

6% 

8% 
10 

13% 

16% 

20 

23 X 

26% 

33% 

10 

15 

20 

25 

30 

13% 

20 

26% 

33% 

40 

46% 

53% 

50 

58% 

66% 

30 

40 

50 

00 

70 

80 

26% 

40 

53 X 

66% 

80 

93% 

60 

80 
100 
1 20 
140 

160 

106% 
133% 
100 



22 



3% 

5' 2 
7% 




6 
11 

14% 

18% 

22 

25% 

29% 

36% 

II 

16% 

22 

27 

33 

14% 
22 

29% 

36% 

44 

51% 

-— '.i 
55 

64% 
73% 

33 

44 

5 

66 

77 

88 

29% 

44 

58% 

73% 

88 
102% 

66 

88 
110 

;2 

154 
176 
117% 

146% 

176 



24 



4 
6 
8 

10 

12 

16 

20 

24 

28 

32 

40 

12 

IS 

24 

30 

36 

16 

2 

32 

40 

48 

56 

64 

60 

70 

80 

36 

48 

60 

72 

84 

9* 
32 

ts 

64 

80 

96 

112 

7. 
96 

120 

144 
168 

10, 

128 

160 

192 



FiKiiros jriven are Board Feet. Lumber is usually priced by the Thousand Board Feet 
A piece 1 inch thick, 12 inches wide and 1 foot long, constitutes 1 toot Roard Measure. 







I ». 












I 









ON CONCRETE CONSTR U C T I N ^7 



Foundations 

Concrete is the material generally employed for all foun- 
dation work. It adapts itself to any structural conditions 
such as irregularity of the bed. It is convenient, strong, 
durable and reasonable in cost. The same general principles 
of construction govern in foundation walls whether for large 
or small buildings. 

Forms 

The building of forms is shown on page 58. For ordinary 
trench walls where the ground is solid and firm, forms are 
commonly built above the ground only, the trench being made 
just the width of the wall desired, Fig. 51, page 59. It is a 
good plan to lay 2" x 10" planks fiat on the ground along the 
edge to prevent the earth from being broken off and knocked 
into the excavation. Sometimes tarred paper or burlap is 
hung on the side opposite that from which the concrete is 
poured so as to protect the earth. In the case of cellar walls 
or basement for buildings when the earth is sufficiently solid 
and firm to act in place of a form on the outer side, inside 
forms only are required. Fig. 48, page 58. When the earth 
is soft , crumbling or yielding, forms are erected on both sides, 
Fig. 49, page 58. 

Construction 

Foundation walls are always carried below the frost line, 
which in southern states is at least two feet below ground level 
tnd four feet in northern states. The depth of the foundations 
also depends upon the character of the soil and sufficient depth 
must be reached to insure firm, unyielding earth, or sufficient 
width of foundation must be provided so as to make sure that 
there will be no settlement. It is, therefore, common practice 
to have a spread footing for the wall when it is built on soft 
earth. In addition to having the spread footing, the concrete 
wall may be reinforced at the lower edge so as to bridge over 
soft spots. 

When building concrete basement walls and footings it is 
generally necessary to provide some means of fastening the 
superstructure to the foundation. This can easily be done by 
embedding bolts, head down, in the concrete. 







T HE AT L A S H A N D B O I l K 



r^ 













Showing the ''Beam Act ion "of concrete Footings 



Foundation 

Wall 



Construction 



j" 



Joint 

3-t Reinforcing Rods 
Embedded in Footing, 



K-r-H 




Soft Spot in 

Ground Under Footing 





Ground 




M 









• I • 



Section at A 



I i 



] 



•if- bridi r soft up. 



Reinforced Foundation 

'1 in Fig. 69 b< am in 

ts oi .ji.< en b n the 
: Ii i cours< n\ i can il 

L < to secure the right j ■ ■ of ( 
L ^ and tin pro) ii n inl imenl 

illa< I lab uppoi d 
id • i fl < i 

v blethe \ afoi <1 

in |,ti , 

J? ' es tfo e, due to 
1 water. 



Size and Mixture 



For i i the I 

) r J 



i » 












o 



tr e gei 

1 1 

" 1 " '• lep< I- 

- 

■ f ] I 1 i 1:2 

I c 

VI uc I ) 

i ■ 



■ 



*■' 

1 















CI J 



i 



r 



J U 









- 

. io-i:- 



O N C O IS C K E T E C U N > 1 R U C T I O \ 



S9 



TABLE 18 
MATERIALS FOR SMALL FOUNDATION WALLS OF CONCRETE* 

Wall 7 Ft. High— Material Needed for Each 10 Ft. Length 





1:2:4 Mixture 


1:2J^:5 Mixture 


1:3:6 Mixture 


i liickness 


Bags 
Cement 


Cubic 
Feet 

Sand 


Cubi 
Feet 
Stone 


Bags 
Cement 


Cubic 
Feet 
Sand 


Cubic 

Feet 

Stone 


Bags 
Cement 


Cubic 
Feet 
Sand 


Cubic 

Feet 

Ston< 


S in. 

9 in. 
10 in. 
12 in. 
18 in. 


10% 
11 

12% 
15% 

23 


20% 
23% 
25% 
30% 
46% 


41% 
46% 
51% 
61% 
92% 


8% 
9 

10% 

12% 

18% 


21 

23% 

26% 

31% 
47% 


42 

47% 

52% 

63 

94% 


7% 

8% 
9% 

11% 
16% 


22% 

25% 

28 

33% 

50% 


44% 
50% 
56 

67% 
100 



Wall 8 Ft. High— Material Needed for Each 10 Ft. Length 



8 in. 

9 in. 
10 in. 

I in. 
I in. 



11% 

13 1.-, 
14% 



■ 



26% 



26% 

29% 
35 ! . 

52 ! - 



47 

52% 

"8% 

70% 

106 



9^5 
10% 

12 

14% 

21% 



21 
27 
30 
36 

54 



48 
54 
60 
72 
108 



8% 

9% 

10% 

3% 
19% 



25 % 
28 % 
32 
38% 

57 } 



51 
5 

64 

76% 
115 



Wall 9 Ft. High— Material Needed for Each 10 Ft. Length 



8 in. 

9 in. 

10 in. 
12 in. 
18 in. 



13 

14% 
16% 

19% 

29 ;i . 



26^ 
29 } 
33 
39? 

59 1 



53 
59 

66 
79 
119 



10% 

12 

13 

1< 
-4% 



27 

33 % 

4i 
'-0% 



4 

•0% 
67% 
81 

121 




9 

10% 
12 

14-, 

-1 ': 



28% 
32% 
36 

43% 
1% 



57% 
64% 
72 

^6% 
130 



Material for Each 10 Ft. of Length of Footings 1:3:6 Mixture 



Size I height x width) 



'j in. x 12 in 

7 in. x 14 in 

8 in. x 16 in 

9 in. x 18 in 
10 in. x 20 in 
12 in. x 24 in 
15 in. x 30 in 



ement 

Baps 

% 
1% 

1% 

1% 
2% 

3 L c, 



Sand 
Cu. Ft 



3toi 
Cu. Ft 






2% 

4 1 
5} 

1 4 3 5 



4% 

3 

is 
29 % 



*This table is for estimating the materials necessary for small foundation walls such as 
those for houses and small buildings. When Btimating these, be sure to make deductions for 
anv wall or door-openings. The 1:2:4 mixture is given for foundation walls where soi la wet 
and a water-tight concrete is necessary. Bec^ the quantities involved in the table art- 
small, the cement is given in bags and the sand and stone m cubic feet. To change the 
cement quantities to barrels divide by 4 and to change the sand and stone quantities to 
cubic yards divide by 27. For foundation walls provided with footings, add the quantities 
t iken from the footing table. 






'MM \'l I. \ tl i DBOO 



FOOTINGS 

fb mplt form of foot in ruction ie plain concrete. 

It t Ik tpe of the old s] i ad m ooting 

and i- i ' lly u I for light e icturt Tlw thicknt >l 
tli< plain fool ii must ufi ienl to p enl I tit 

column punching th and flu pread the hould 

>e I ough that i he b( aring i of th< il i 

n 

I cii u <l in a fool h n decrease 1 hi 

(|uantii qu d j ivet >n ie q i h 

ion infoi pi act in the \> i >l 1 1 u 

l> p m hucklit id \>\ ing 1 in 1 1 - nl ratt d 






ol il i uinn. M ixt ure for looi i j ij 



■_'< i 



illy 1 2 1 



TABLE 19 

Bea > I'owtr «.f Soils in I per Squar- Foot 



: 






I 

r n nry 

I t o I • ' k i i >m i 

h 

i 














2 












15 






5 


in 











4 






1 






8 


in 




4 


6 




2 


4 



] 






111 



4 I 



FLOORS 

Plain Floors 



e floors < l i \ 

»ui ad\ i he 1 \\ o com 

■ ■ 



n.i 



lab I d 

_ t h d - 

■ a l m W 1 u 

1:2:3 'J ij 

1 i pai 



OX CONCRETE CONSTRU C TION 



91 



In constructing basement floors where good drainage exists 
the floor is generally laid right on the ground. If the floor is 
to be subjected to water pressure the membrane system of 
waterproofing is used and no joints made. Under heavy 
pressure the floor is reinforced to resist the upward thrust of 
the water. In this case the reinforcement would be laid near 
the top of the slab. The floor may be laid in alternate section - 
or placed continuously, using strips of tar paper so as t 
separate it into sections. Sections usually do not exceed 10 
feet square. The customary thickness of basement floors is 
4 or 5 inches. 



Reinforced Floors 

The thickness of the floor depends upon the load to be 
carried. For short spans see Table 6 In reinforced concrete 
building construction a smooth finish floor is generally desired. 
The mortar finish should be 1-inch thick. This is an addi- 
tional thickness to that of the floor slab required for carrying 




Fig. 70. — An example of flat slab floor construction. Notice reinforcing in place and 
runways for wheeling concrete buggies to allow for convenient depositing of concret 



92 



THE A TLA HA v ^ D BOO K 



TABLE 20 
QUANTITIES FOR ONE-COURSE SIDEWALKS AND FLOORS 

100 Square Feet of Surface 









] 






l - i Mi* 








Y 


1 . Yd.s. 


t 
i 




• 








0. 


0. 


1.41 


42 







1 


1 








1.1 





it 


1 


1 


2 1 


i 


II 


1 - 1 





1 09 




J 


2 





1 07 


2 10 


o 


1 


." 


1 1 


2 


• 


1 18 


2 ■ 


6 


1 ? 




1 


9 


<< 


1 1 


2 6 


I 


1 


6 




3 




] 42 


2 





1 



•QUANTITIES FOR TWO-COURSE SIDEWALKS AND FLOORS 

100 Square Feet of Surface 









i i 






1 




. 




] 


■ 








I 

• 




' 


i 


• 


4H 


1 15 

1 

1 51 
1 
1 91 


0.43 

< 
( 


1 L2 

1 

1 


1 i 

1 

i \: 


1 \ 

< ! 

J 


i 
i 

1 31 

1 








' 






] 




X 


J I 










< 


C i 


1 

1 


' 


% 

1 


1 13 

J 


11 


( 
1 


i 

1 i 


1 

1 


! o 



- t 












a ud 



1 






<* vj •- 4 J 



' 




O N CON C H K T E CON S TRIG T 1 N 



':»:.; 



the load. The finish is screeded with a straight-edge, smoothed 
with a wooden float and later finished with a steel trowel. 
If the base has hardened before placing the finish it is very 
important that it be properly prepared, so that the mortar 
finish will adhere firmly. It is necessary to roughen and clean 
the concrete base thoroughly. All loose material should be 
cleaned from the surface. The concrete should be thoroughly 
drenched so that it will not absorb any moisture from the 
finish mortar. The base is then given a coat of grout which is 
simply cement and water applied with a whitewash brush, 
and is then ready for an immediate application of the mortar 
finish. The mixture for the slab is 1:2:4, and for the finish 
1:2, or 1:1:1 as noted. 



Terrazzo Floor Finish 

Terrazzo floors are used for corridors, halls and display 
rooms. They are built by using crushed marble of various 
colors, graded from % to J^-inch, with portland cement, and 
polishing when the mixture has hardened sufficiently. A good 
method is to use 1 part Atlasr-White Cement and 2 parts 
crushed marble, and apply this mortar to the concrete slab 
to a thickness of % to 1 inch, as in the case of monolithic work. 
After this mixture has been spread and screeded it is rolled 
with a roller and additional marble chips added until the mix- 
ture will accept no more. The surface is then thoroughly 
troweled and allowed to become sufficiently hard to be rubbed 
with carborundum block or a power surfacing machine. Such a 
method of construction produces a very attractive, hard, 
durable floor. 

The use of Atlas White Portland Cement results in a more 
handsome appearance than when regular gray cement is 
employed, because the white matrix of cement by contrast 
shows up the marble chips to best advantage. The use of 
heet-brass dividing strips in terrazzo floor is becoming general 
as a means for avoiding contraction cracks. 




4 THE A I L A HANDBOOJ 



COLUMNS 

The columns of a building an the mosl imp mt individual 
members md reful coi [deration in construction is essential. 

( >ncreti lumi nould alwaj pi ed fi all« vii 

opportunity for settlement bei placing fi • *r slabs. Then 

m in i i 1 0] saved in carpenter and labor wrorl 

■ii >lumn i in 'ii id <n. ei o id stripping than on 

ui the \ 

While there ai n - in ilumn shap the 

lu ii pr< i 1 bee iii<- foi in ea and 

imically built md can b< en 1 and ripped - 
d( lopn at of I ms foi round columns has d< 
( 1 tl • round imn com ud on, however, and 

n iin -in^ i i round i lumns i >< cially v 

flare! i column Le m cessar II 
i ictor s not ha h \ n I >rms, m t hem 

]•■ >n ilmij I j e 60 on i is. r etui 

lumn -■■ >uld in :iot 1- i I nan I 1 \ 



ROOFS 

I; m: • 1 ro ill v flooi flooi 

, b Tin ii r i J : i 

sell <>r drain i be pro led I ader till 

■ • ler upon u | >lac< d I ai and :r I, or 

• f i 1 1 - ►nsidered Ivisal dwaj 

m of r< fing ia1 I on plain 
1 1 i 






WALLS, PARTITIONS, ETC. 

tifoi bu 

tiled ( I are gei bed after 

tl e si i is put S •! ■ lumi I in oi der 

to pr< e a n I 76 for 

for: v. iin lit reinfi 2 1 

tbem iff ii< - while jk 

n wall- of lil 4- i to Ci 



ON CONC H L T E CONSTHIC T I O N 



95 



STEPS AND STAIRS 

Forms 

Fig, 71 shows forms for concrete steps that are built on the 
ground and not reinforced. The forms for this type of step 
construction consist of two planks braced against the side- 
walls by 4x4's and wedges. To these are nailed 2 x 4's which 
come to within a couple of inches of the treads. To the 2 x 4's 
are nailed the cross planks which form the risers. In actual 
construction it is better to fasten the 2 x 4's to the planks in 
proper position before the planks are braced against the wall. 



Fig. 71. 
Forms for steps 
supported on 
ground. If there 
is any doubt 
about support- 
ing power of the 
earth a few re- 
inforcing bars 
should be placed 
in the steps to 
prevent crack- 
ing. 



2 tl x4"BRACF 




2"x4" Supports 
For R/ser Forms 



2"Plank 



i"T&G, 



4"x4 



a 



2" Plank MS 




2"Plank 
D4S 



Cleat 



4"x4 



if 



Fig. 72. 
Forms for self- 
supporting rein- 
forced steps. 
This type of 
step has a clear 
space beneath, 
and must be 
supported either 
at the sides or 
at top and bot- 
tom. 



^-^Brace 



Wedges 



























I 



■ 









■ 





















ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



r > 



i 



according to the length of the slab. The reinforcing for 
different length stairs is shown below. 



Forms 

The forms required for self-supporting stairs are shown in 
Fig. 72. They consist of a panel of %-inch tongue and groove 
sheathing cleated together, and about 12 to 14 inches wider 
on each side than the stairs. This panel is supported on 
4 x 4's longitudinally, which in turn are supported on 4 x 4" 
bents as shown. The planks forming the side forms are nailed 
to the panels and braced on the outside. 




i 



./Safety 
Tread 




Fig. 73 



.Corner 
\ Guard 



v» 



•-'■■.• 



- TT7a , 



tf. -.«. 



Three types of riser form for concrete steps. It is best to have 
under-cut in same manner as shown in the center rather than the 

type shown at the right. 



the 



tread 



Construction 

The entire slab should be poured at one time. The longi- 
tudinal reinforcement should be placed before the forms for 
the risers are attached and the rods in the edge of the step- 
placed when the concrete is poured. The mixture used should 
be 1:2:4. The placing of the body of the concrete should be 
followed at once by the ^-inch surfacing. 

The side and riser forms can be removed 24 hours aftei 
the concrete is poured, but the forms and shoring supporting 
the stair slab should be left in place at least four weeks. 

Fig. 73 shows three types of riser forms which have proven 
satisfactory. 

Where unusual traffic conditions exist, as in railroad stations 
and factories, metal treads are used. 



98 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



A TYPICAL SMALL REINFORCED CONCRETE 

BUILDING 

For Example — A One-Story Private Garage 

A construction for garages is described in this section 
because it is a typical small concrete building. With some 
slight modification these directions may be used for tool house 
repair shop, small storehouse or for any one of many purposes. 

Foundation 

For a one-story garage, foundations need not be more than 
10 inches thick with a spread foundation if soil conditions 
warrant; page 87. The common mixture is 1 :2\4:5. 



Walls 

A reinforced concrete wall 8 inches thick is satisfactory for 
the superstructure, using a 1:2:4 mixture. The walls should 
be reinforced with 3/g-inch round steel rods, plaeed 14 inches 
apart, running horizontally and vertically. Forms fur the 
walls are shown on pages 58 and 59. 

Openings 

Frames for forming the window and door openings should 
be pla«f d in the forms at the time the concrete is being poured. 
Fig. 52. 

Roof 

The roof may be made either p i ked or flat. The one shown 
in the drawing has a -lope of aboul 4 inches toward the back 
of the building It is made 7 inrh< thick of a 1 :2:4 mixture 
and reinforced with %-inch round steel rods spaced 5 inch 
apart crosswise an <» inch* apart lengthwise of the building, 
and located 1 inch from the bottom of the slab. The rods are 
wired together where they en> ich other so a< to prevent 
any shifting while placing the concrete. A concrete I tm 
inch wide x 14 inches deep including the thicl of tie 

r >l is pla d over the oorway. Thia b \m i reinforced 
with H-ineh [uare twist steel rod placed 2 inch* from 

the bottom. Form- for the roof consist >f a flat platform < 




ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



99 



CONCRETE* GARAGE 

•WITH • 

•RUBBED -SURFACE- 

AND 

•CONCRETE ROOF • 




DOUBLE 
SWING 

,v Doors r 

j D/am. Bolts \ L y ..^, .. .. ; . . ,.. t ..,,.,. i 

POURED /N CONCRETE \ |J 

TO ANCHOR *- ■ ■ ■ H « - H0S£ 



DOOR FRAME 




DETAIL OF 
DOOR JAMB 



EE3 



Concrete 

Floor 



PLAN 



i/MT 



JO'-O 



w- 



f RODS /2"C< 

vert. a //OR. 



/ 

8" Concrete Wall ' 

REINFORCED WITH § RODS 

t2"0.C. Vertical & Horizontal 



6" Concrete 
Partition 



Sink 



- '■ -' - - 




Double Hung \ 
Window 



Heater 




\ 



Outside Surface 
Hammered or Rubbed 



REINFORCED 

Concrete Roof 
Sloped 



Far & Gravel 
roofing 



Concrete 

Cricket 




2"x/fNAILIN6 

Strip /2" Long 

2 IN EACH 

window Jamb 



1 



3" 



-> 



/ DlAM. RODS f2"0.C. 

Vert a Hor. 



■ 1 . i 



W'^- -^ ■■■■■: ^- W- 



REINFORCED 

OVER All OPENINGS 




\v • W»* ■ V." 




SECTION 



|i DETAIL OF 
S»J WINDOW JAMB 

-*- BEL 0W 
FROST LINE 



Concrete 
Wall K 



7" concrete roof 
Slab reinforced 

WITH fDlAK RODS 3"QC 

Wi ,2 'Rods / 'Dian 

{*( OVER DOORWAY 

And in each jamb 




Fig. 74. — Details of small private garage construction. 



DETAIL OF 
ROOF CONSTRUCTION 




H KJ 



1HK ATLAS HANDBOOK 



i-inch I rds on joists supported by upright studding. Forms 

►nglj ad v U supported so as to safe!;, bold the 

t etc. 

>rj - i ice finish may I obtained by em- 

th< m thoi described on pa,^. 



REINFORCED CONCRETE TWO-STORY GARAGE 



te ideal mat .1 foj ge construe! on. Ji 

I ai I i ik< th< >ughl\ ibstanti; 

1 f ru 



are town herewith J«»r a 
h illug tteth< i pplication oi reinforced 
tv truction 



1 



Foundations 

J hi this i aed lor soil pressure of 

t, and eof 1 spread tj pe. Tl 

l)( ' foi lat a wall re n inforced in two dii 
u 1 i i i ] inch* J th( 

1 )( • used to bond footings t 

11 e the I cfl d bj ertical i i- 

jij the coi 




£ 



•w 















•d r vay u, uboolo A 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



101 



LOT LINE. 








4 




Fig. 76. — Floor plan of garage shown in Figure 75. 



102 



THE A TL. SHAN I> ROOK 




„ 









^ 







I 









^ 


























z 



I 









3* 

O O 



o 







P 

o 
o 



O 




9 



5^' 






^-rffljTTrrrffT 

1— MM^P— ^M Ml I 



U~ 



2<3 



•C <0 



3 



£ ^ 






KK. ^ k NQ 









si 

1 

IS*** 







Vi 



4 









2 Z 

2 
to -j 

UJ 

Z 

O 2 



> 

i i 

«^ *> ^- k* &- 






r 













s 






n 



ftw . r ft . < ^ flf4) ; *L^£ 




?6/ 






03 

w 



c 












ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 103 



Columns 

The columns are reinforced with vertical steel only, tied 
together with light hoops, Fig. 43. 

Floor Construction 

This is beam and girder design. The details are shown in 
Fig. 77. This type of construction is what is known as mono- 
lithic skeleton type. 

Roof 

The roof is constructed as a floor. A slope is provided by a 
cinder fill upon which the usual tar and gravel covering is 
applied. 

Walls 

The walls are 8 inches thick. Round steel rods are used for 
reinforcement. 

Inclined Runway 

The runway is constructed at the same time as the frame- 
work of the building. The pipe railing on the outside is built 
of 23/2-inch piping with standard fittings. The building is 
shown in Fig. 75. Further details on garage construction will 
be gladly sent. 

TANKS 

One of the most advantageous uses of concrete is in the 
construction of tanks. It combines strength, water-tightness 
and durability. Concrete tanks are easily constructed and 
are built in any size or shape. 

Concrete tanks are built to hold many different liquids, 
such as: water, mineral oils, salt brine, molasses, vegetable 
and animal oils, miscellaneous chemical solutions, tanning 
liquids and dairy products. 

Many of these liquids are stored in plain concrete tanks; 
others require special treatment on the interior surface. For 
specific information on solving your storage problem write 
The Atlas Portland Cement Company. 

(Tank* — -Continued on next page) 



104 



THE ATI. AS T! VND BO<> 1\ 






Construction 
The gen< il principle of construction, such as foundations 

mixt re, placin • are th< ae for all tanks. The kind 

a i hap 'f rn aid also the thickness of walls an< 

the an ain r ifor< meat. 

Th ' d ■ irsl bi del rmined in ord to de< > 

u l the pi r i e a ad <1< of I Ik- tanl In i ing 

t it should aicai 1 thai iy<i illons equal on< 

ze I runs from □ N \\ ateri i \ rough 

alia ban I auks rr< ervoirs hoi ding 

m lloi 



Foundations 

'! I fom i> a th< i - and uniformly con 

J ( al g the en1 i I anl flooi la H 

to dig I ■ ■ - id build foundal ion 
In sue Iditi oaJ n orcia^ >hould be use 

1 1 fir r. 



Forms 



I for i 'i)ar or are 1 • are :< aamann< 

■ 1 wall f' ■ In circular I 

ru n of li i eitl n I* u <l 



einfor 



TABLE 22 

1 for Uom of Rectangular Tanks 






o 
4 

6 

8 

10 



. 



— 
7 






- * 



i 



I 



8 




8 


6 








1 




- 






36 

1 
J 
) 
1 
1 






i 






V 



ON CONCRETE CONS'I KUCTiUN 



105 



TABLE 23 
Size and Spacing of Rods in Walls of Rectangular Tanks 







Spacing of 1 


Spacing of 


Spacing of 


Spacing of 




Thick- | 


W Round 


W Round 


%» Round 


1* Round 


Depth 


ness 


Rods 


Rods 


Rods 


Rods 


f 


of 

Wall 










rank 


Hoii- 




Hori- 




Hori- 




Hori- 






Ver- 


zon- 


Ver- 


zon- 


\ cr- 


zon- 


Ver- 


zon- 






tical 


tal 


tical 


tal 


tical 


tal 


tical 


tal 


Feet 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inch* 


3 


5 


5 


10 


10 


20 


# • # 


■ • • a 


i * . i 


• * * 


4 


5 


4 


8 


8 


16 


16 


32 


■ • • « 


• • • • 


5 


5H 


3 


6 


6 


12 


12 


24 


m m • t 




6 


6M 


2V 2 


5 


5 


10 


10 


20 


18 


36 




8 


« • * ■ 


■ * ■ ■ 


3 


6 


— 

7 


14 


16 


30 


8 


m 


■ • * t 


■ • • * 


W* 


5 


5 


10 


11 


22 


9 


ioh 


■ * i 


• • • ■ 


# # * • 


■ • • « 


5 


10 


10 


20 


10 


12 


# « * ■ 


• * • 


• • v ■ 


■ m m i 


4 


8 


8 


16 




ft 



[ 



t 




Fig. 78. — Example of placing steel reinforcing in rectangular tank. Notice how bars 

are bent up from floor into walls, and also around corners. 



(i) 



D< pi 



Feet 

5 
5 

10 
10 
15 
15 



TABLE 24 

Size and Spacing of Rods in Walls of Circular Tanks 



(2 



Diani 
eter 



Feet 
5 
10 
10 
15 
10 
15 



(3) 



Thickness 

of Concrete 

in Wall 



Inches 

6 
6 

8 

9 
10 
12 



(4) 

Diameter 
of Hori- 
zontal 
Rods 



Inch 

H 
H 

3 





Spacing 

Horizontal 

Rods at 

Bottom 



Inches 

8 
6 
6 
4 
4 
6 



(6) 

Spacing 

Horizontal 

Rods at 

Top 



Inches 

18 
12 
18 
18 
18 
20 



(7] 



Diameter 

Vertical 

Rods 



Inches 
1 





'8 




3 
3 




S 



(8) 



>pacing 

Vertical 
Roda 



Inches 

36 
30 
36 
36 
30 
30 



106 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



p^. 



shown in Fig. 66 or forms for the entire height. If a contractor 
has several tanks to build, steel forms are generally more 
economical than wood. 

Proportions 

The proportions must be such as to secure a thoroughly 
dense concrete that will be water-tight. Usually for ordinarv 
work a 1 :2 :3 mixture is used. For special work richer mixtures 
are necessary. See page 27 on watertight concrete. 

Placing 

Concrete should be placed continuously if possible^ other- 
wise, care should be taken to secure proper bond with the 
previously poured concrete. See page 35. 



'<- r /6'-0"INAHETER — 

i 



\^±YERTlCAL AND 

1 



HORIZONTAL RODS 
§"D(AM. 



■- \/6 L 0" DIAMETER - - 

HORIZONTAL RODS 
fDlAII 



Joints 

There are several ways of making joints. About the most 
common is the use of a metal dam or diaphragm. This is a 

piece of sheet me- 
tal 6 inches wide. 

placed vertically 

and buried 3 in- 
ches deep in the 
old concrete, ex- 
tending 3 inches 
into the new con- 
crete. 

Reinforcement 

Reinforcement 
lor rectangular 
and circular tank^ 
is shown in the 
tables on page 

It is put in 
the center of the 
wall as shown in 
Fig. 78-79, and 
the bars are lapped 




I HORIZONTAL RODS 
TO LAP 15" 



S'Gal K IRON 

STRIP 



L/6 Ji4& 




J HORIZONTAL RODS 
TO LAR P0" 



6" gal v. iron 
Strip 



105. 






3' 



SPACING OF | DIAM. RODS SPACING OF j D1AM. RODS 
g . 79. — Spacing of horizontal bara in 16' circular tank. 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIO N 



10 



at the junction of the bottom and sides, and around the cor- 
ners. If necessary to splice the bar, they should be lapped 
40 diameters. 




2*D/AM. RODS 

^ 8" OX. BOTH WAYS 

aj A . 



// 



4 concrete under 
Bottom Rods 



<?"-> 



t 



*t . - 



a* 



SL 



J 
J 

4 
1 

3 

i 

i 

a 



x 
i 

i 

i 
i 




T 



/f'-tf" -; 



CAPACITY /SfiOO OA LLONS 



i 
I 
I 
I 

! SLOPE FLOOR 
1 > 











&0£f #0<W 



&/W 




r 

I 

f 

P 

f 

c 

r 
C 

-p. 



: 




8" 



SECTION 



WASH OFF 

and apply 

Cement 

Grout 



6" Gal v. /ron Strip 




' ?••.: ^v'o '.■'■';'■*'-. : .'*\j 



LEAVE OLD 
CONCRETE ROUGH 



Fig. 80.— Details at circular tank- Capacity 15.000 gallons. See Figure 79. 

Quantities of Materials Required for Tank — (shown above | 



Concrete, 22 ', Cu. Yd. Mix 1:2:3 



5 V 2 " Roof Slab 

Floor 

Walls 

For 7'* Roof Slab use 
these quantities 



Cement 
Sacks 

28 
39 



Sand 
Cu. Yd. 



91 
36 



2 
3 



6 3 , 



4 



2% 



Stone 
Cu. Yd. 



Reinforcement 




'4 

4^ 



10M 




W rods— 478 1b. 
Y±" rods — 67.7 lb. or 

wire mesh 42 * wide 

—84.5 lb. 
Y%* rods — 663 lb. or 

)4" rods— 705 lb. 
y 8 " rods— 625 lb. 



1 



11 J i - H A N 13 BOO 



CONCRETE SILOS 



A 






I 






i 

■ 









t fi mei It savi 

1 1 i ta w \ i v 

I farmers an d I build 

in I U ■ | ' - I of con- 

I I I I I • v ■ I 






TABLF 

A »tc apa of N ocind Silofe 









4 
















' 



' 






i 






I'M. 



I 












•Quant 
1 2 4 \ t i 



r a hi i 

' Com r< h Willi* 

r ) I il I ! oo' v. it ) ,- jl J< 






14 
14 
14 



r 1 



4 
4 J 











































































J'- 






1< 


, 


# 












4G 






ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



109 



TABLE 27 

Spacing of Horizontal Reinforcing Rods for Silos 

of Various Inside Diameters 



Distance 

in feet 

down 

from top 
of Silo 



Top 5 ft 

5 to 10 
10 to 15 
15 to 20 
20 to 25 
25 to 30 
30 to 35 
35 to 40 
40 to 45 
45 to 50 



10-foot 
diameter 

2^-inch 

Round 

Rods 

rnches 

24 
24 
24 
18 

16 
14 
12 

10 
9 
8 



12-foot 


1 4-foot 


16-foot 


diameter 


diameter 


diameter 


^-inch 


J^-inch 


K-inch 


Round 


Round 


Round 


Rods 


Rods 


Rods 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


24 


24 


24 


24 


24 


24 


18 


24 


24 


16 


24 


18 


12 


18 


16 


10 


16 


14 


9 


14 


12 


8 


12 


10 


7 


11 


9 


6H 


10 


W* 



IS -foot 
diarne 



3^-incb 
Round 

Rods 



Inches 

24 
24 
24 
18 
14 
12 
10 

9 

8 

7K 



20-foot 

diameter 



2 -inch 

Round 
Rods 



Inches 

24 

24 
24 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 

l l A 

7 



P'urther information on silos will be gladly 
The Atlas Portland Cement Company. 



furnished by 



SMALL GRAIN ELEVATORS 



A small concrete grain elevator is almost identical in con- 
struction with the ordinary concrete silo or circular tank. The 
only additions needed are a concrete pit for the bucket elevator 
boot and a work-house on top of the bin or bins to house the 
elevator head and chutes. 

The operation of such an elevator is as follows: The farm 
wagon dumps its load of grain into the boot-pit and the bucket- 
elevator raises the grain to the top of the bin where it is dis- 
charged through the bin chute into the bin. When a railroad 
car is to be loaded the bin gate is opened and the grain flows 
into the pit from which the bucket elevator raises it to the 
top and it is discharged, this time through the car chute into 
the railroad car. 




HO THE ATLArf HANDBOOK 



SWIMMING POOLS 

Towns and cities are building swimming and wading pools 
in athletic fields and parks for both adults and children. Xo 
other material is as suitable as concrete. 

Swimming pools are built in various sizes, usually not smaller 
than 45 feet long by 15 feet wide. A common size and one 
which will fit the majority of cases is 60 feet long by 20 feet 
wide, a suggested design for which is shown in Fig. 81. 

Forms 

Footing forms are first erected allowing sufficient space for 
tile dram around the outer edge of the pool as indicated in the 
drawing. The reinforcing is then placed for the walls and 
temporarily held by supports. Forms are then built for the 
entire height of the walls. 

Mixture and Placing 

The mixture should be not leaner than 1 :2;3. See page 27 
on water-tight concrete If- the concreting operation cannot 
be completed in one continuous pouring without stopping 
he v lis should be divided by means of vertical stop-board 
into sections which can be completed in one pouring without 
interruption. 

The concrete must be especially well spaded next the inside 
form so as to prevent pockets and the concrete must fo 
brought up uniformly at all points. Rapping the inside form 
with mallets, or better still, vibrating with pneumatic or 
lectnc hammer will be a great aid in securing a dense, smooth 
urface. After the interior forms have been removed th. 
wedge shaped strips which will form a space to be filled with 
tar. an olaced around the edge and construction of the floor 
earned on If the floor cannot be placed continuously, the 
concrete should be laid in ctions and joints provided. Floor 
construction is described on page 90. 

Reinforcement 

Details on the placing and bonding of steel are given on 

pdg6S 4t> tO 5ui 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



111 



mv> 




o 

z 



p 



z 

o 
c 

- ^-t 

p, 



71 

5 



C 

u 



- 



11 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



TABLE 28 

Quantities of Atlas White Portland Cement Required for 

Lining Swimming Pools 

(For estimating purposes only) 













Width (In Feet) 










m 

— 

bO 

Z 

*1 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


65 


70 


75 


40 


bbls. 
6 5 
8.0 
9 5 

■ - 


bbls. 

8.0 

9.5 

11.0 

12 5 


bbls 
9.0 
10.5 
12.5 
14.0 
16.0 


bbls. 
10.0 
12.0 
14.0 
16.0 

18.0 
20.0 


bbls. 
11.0 
13.5 
15.5 
17.5 
20.0 
22.0 
24.5 


bbls. 


bbls. i 


bbls. 


bbls. 


bbls. 


bbls. 


bbls. 


KM 

so 

00 
'/0 

00 


14.5 
17.0 
19.5 
22.0 
24.0 
26.5 
29.0 


16.0 

18.5 
21 
24.0 
26.5 
29.0 
3 1 . 5 












20.0 
23.0 
25 . 5 
28 . 5 
31 .5 
34.0 
37.0 
40.0 


21 5 
24.5 
27.5 
30 . 5 
31.0 
37.0 
40.0 
43.0 








26.5 
29.5 
33.0 
36.0 
39 5 
42.5 
46.0 


28.0 
31.5 
35.0 
38.5 
42 . 
45.5 
49.0 


335 


90 






37.0 


100 








41.0 


iIO 










44.5 


120 












48.0 


130 
















52.0 


*■ *^ ^^ 



















The quantities given in the table are the number of barrels (4 bags per 
bbl.) of Atlas White Portland Cement required for the lining of a standai 
swimming pool of the size indicated. In computing these q mtitics the 

>ol was assumed to be three feet deep at one end and nine feet deep at 
the opposite end. The amounts are to the near< st half barrel and are 
only approximate for the purpose cf estimating. The lining was assumed 

> be applied Yi inch thick, made of a mortar consisting of 1 part Atlas 
White to 2y<L parts of selected sand. 



Finish 

If weather conditions allow the inner forms to be removed 
within 24 hours, the concrete can be roughened with a wire 
brush and surfaced with a mortar composed of 1 part Atlas- 
White Cement, and 2 pa s white sand, or crushed marble 
If the forms are allowed to it main for a longer time, the 
urface should be thoroughly roughened with a stone pick 
or similar tool before applying the finish. Such a finish has a 
very attractive appearanc pages 36 to 39 on surface 

finishes. 

In order to eliminate i lie tin and labor required for plas- 
tering the inside of a wimming pool, it is becoming more and 



^ 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



II 




Fig. 82. — An example of a beautiful ornamental swimming pool executed with 
Ulas White Portland Cement. A swimming pool need not be rectangular in shape, 
although the same reinforcing details shown in Figure 81 can be used, providing the 
depth of water is the same. 



more the practice to use Atlas White Portland Cement 
throughout the walls and floor. This gives a monolithic white 
concrete and the extra cost of the white cement is offset by 
the saving in labor which would have been needed for preparin 
the surface and plastering with white mortar. There is the 
xlded advantage of having the pool of monolithic poured 
onst ruction. 



O 



It is advisable to wait at least 3 weeks before back filling 
with earth, or allowing the tank to be filled with water. 
Further details on construction of swimming pools will be 
gladly furnished by The Atlas Portland Cement Company. 




1 



H 1 



HAMIHIK) 









TORAGI CELLARS 






li r a in 



1 



\M> \ birds 



. 







01 0% 




ArA 

A. HAH HA 

t UP 



4 AAA 



! //><*v 







■CTIOM / 









/ VI I AH AW 




A, A 



on B-fl 



A* 










LAM 



• 



, ■ 










0g of for IB 



ormi 

ea<r in 

1 h iff < 



.. I 



1 • . . 



4 



- ! 










• I 









iiui 



H* ' 














< on> t ru< t ior, 



•n 

. II! 



1 ' - 





i • 



h I rf 







' I 






' 







and 






< i i . < i ' I I I ( ' i 









Roof 



I 






"tf 



I 






lit 



.11 < 



III I I 






I 









t 



I 






1 I 



llMli 



•ngi 






» 



1 






i 






* * 















• 



\ o 



; s, 



nth t 



SH'IK <k 



.i 






1 






I 









I.. 






. i 






i 









ir 













N 



SfP" »*« 



API 



I 










(/ 



*1 






i 





















^ 



1 



1 i J I NDlHKIK 



in 



- 



» 



III I 









i . 



lo 



r i 



■ iiii 






i 

1 I ply 









t i «mt (Mat nig 






i 












I i 



u 



l! i 



i i 



i < 



1 1 

! Ill 






Wl 




* 



1* 



A 



r 



i. 















ij 





3 





















c* 



I 









I 









• r 



■ I 






F ' r 'rc20rr • 


















, 






i 









s < 









i 









4 , 


















I 



) 



\\ 







ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



117 



Adjustable 
Flange 




Bath Tub 



X 



% 



Riser 
Pipe 



Clean out^ 




ROOF 



Vent 
Cl oset 
Basin 



Sink 






Fig. 86.— Plan of 
typical septic tank 
system showing the 
connections to 
plumbing. 

Below is shovm 
layout of tile system 
into which tank dis- 
charges. 



Riser foundation 




"■" ' •"■"'"- ^ •- ' 



<• 



; Running 
Trap 



To Septic 

Tank 



— S'-O"—'. 




4"Sewep 

3"SYPH0N 




\ 



3 



/ 



"4 " mains - Open Joints 



Septic 
Chamber 



For Every 

*~ ^ Served by 

j. Septi c tank 



70' FOR 'Sandy Soil 
120' FOR Loamy Soil 

120' Rock Ditch for 
Clay or Gumbo 



— -H 



J 



\ 



1 



4" Mains- Open Joints 



-A 




PLAN 



■■■'•• 




■^mww**" 



\ — " 

V" Main 




C'Cleanout 
Pipe 



section 



j 



118 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



SIDEWALKS 

Concrete sidewalks are built either of the one course or two 
course type. The one course has the advantage. It is of 
uniform mixture throughout, win eh means that the cost of 
mixing and placing is less. 

Foundations 

The kind of foundation depends on the character of the soil. 
If the soil sandy or well-drained an excavation ie ma<l< only 
for the o >th of the slal The soil is then thoroughly tamped 
a> I v t ted. 

If the soil r< tins water, an i cavation of from 10 to 12 
iches is ma< and fro 6 to 8 inches of cinders laid and 

tl rou ram ire When t met d is followed, drainage 

bI uld 1 • ■ id< ofl the watej which i >i othei 

wise r< in the foundation and < ;t injur) bj tr* ig. 

All tn« ■ >uld be renn d to sufficient depth so i ri 

irij) hi aval can result from them. 



Fo 



rms 



2 \ 4*s or 2 > M i s & m place a < CUrely staked provide 

su ie forms. Ma ufactured steel forn i an more eon- 

ve ent ai la iu when any con derable amount of work 

i ( < done. 

Expansion Joints 

Expam i j J v-! wide should bi placed ev< y 50 

y ret} 25 feet If the walk run 1 - to the 

irb, a joint d I" pli d b a if andth< walk, J< 

i t of | pared m as ast laliie felt i may 1 

le pen a ; aft I filled with sand. The u lal length of 

a nit eel a complete ration should be mac 

■ IV, i 

Finish 

I slightly rougl fil j btaim >y using a v. n floa 1 

Thie ifl usually ef J' to the i sn oth fn \ secured 

v uf ' i b teel ti 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



119 



Excess water should be avoided, see page 10; also excessive 
troweling, which brings the cement and water to the surface 
and causes dusting with the result that the sidewalk will not 
wear as well as it would otherwise. 



Protection 

The concrete should be protected by covering or sprinkling 
so as to prevent too rapid drying out. 

Mixture and Thickness 

One-course sidewalk is built of a mixture of 12 3 and is 
usually 4 or 5 inches thick. 

Two-course sidewalk is built of 1:2^5 for the base; and 
one part Atlas Cement and 2 parts sand for the top. The base 
is commonly 4 inches thick, and top 1 inch thick. 



CURBS AND GUTTERS 

Concrete is the material commonly used for curb and gutter 
construction. It is adaptable to any form or shape, and can 
be built at the same time as a driveway or pavement. 

Both two-course and one-course construction are used, the 
tendency now is toward one-course work — the same mixture 
throughout. It is easier and more economical to handle. A 
good finish can be obtained by properly tamping and spading 
the concrete and then removing the forms as soon as possible 
and troweling or rubbing the surface. 

The single curb is usually built 6 to 8 inches thick at the 
top and 9 to 12 inches thick at the bottom, and 18 to 24 inches 
deep. Fig. 87a shows how forms are constructed and braced. 

Fig. 87b shows the size of curb and construction of forms for 
combined curb and gutter; also for curb combined with con- 




.JO 



THE A TLA H \ XDBOO K 













<9**\ 



r i and 



1 1 
1 1 



I A— Atleft 

i 8 fibo WD 
rms } 
ret« i irb. 




r< -<?*"-- 



rau 



dr M tee! forms i irbfi ar 

rior 1 I form 



If I i 






ub-basi ic 



thi 






be i. T) 



f ] 



i 



men ] I 



I r 



K . 



1. 









, , 



1 



ij 'if 

■ ' M< f at 

n i ] 



1 

D ! 






urn in i It \> gui 



— • 






Urn 



1 

]' 1 ! f< aam< 



, i 



i\ 






: I . 



• - 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



121 



CI- 




TABLE 29 
Table of Quantities for Curbs and Gutters 

for Each 100 Feet of Length 



L~e— 



SEPARATE CURB 



A 


B 

Iris. 

6 
6 
6 


C 
Ins 


1:2:3 Mix* 


1 2:4 Mix 


tl:2H:5 Mix 


In 


Cement 

b')U. 


Sand 

eu. yds. 


Stone 
cu. yd-. 


Cemej 

bbls. 


Sand 
cu. yds. 


Stone 
cu. yds. 


Cement 
bbls. 


Sand 
i. yds. 


S ne 
cu. yds. 


2 + 
3fi 


8 

8' 

9 


7.50 

9.73 

12.10 


2.25 
2.91 
3.61 


3.34 

4.31 

5.35 


6.50 

8.45 
10.50 


1.95 

2.52 
3.12 


3.86 
4.90 

6.18 


5.37 
6.94 

8.61 


2.00 
2.58 
3.19 


3.98 
5.15 
6.39 




L~c~* J 













INTEGRAL CURB 








A 


B 

In 
6 


c 

In-. 
7 


1:1^:3 Mix 


1:2:3 Mix 


1:2:4 Mix 


Ins. 


Cement 
bbls. 


Sand 
cu. yds. 


Stone 
cu. yds. 


Cement 
bbls. 


Sand 
cu. yds. 


Stone 

cu. yd 


Cement 
bbls. 


Sand 
cu. yds. 


Stone 
cu. \ 


6 


1 91 


0.42 


85 


1.74 


0.52 


0.77 


1.51 


0.45 


0.89 



rc-B->|< C 




COMBINED CURB AND GUTTER 





B 

Ins. 


C 

Ins. 


D 
Ins. 


E 
Ins. 


1:2:3 Mix* 


1:2:4 Mix 


tl:2'_. 5 Mix 


A 
Ins. 


Ce- 
ment 
bbls. 


Sand 

cu. 

yds. 


Stone 

eu. 

yds. 


Ce- 
ment 
bbls. 


Sand 

cu. 

yds. 


-none 

cu. 

yds. 


Ce- 
ment 

bbls. 


Sand 

cu. 

yds. 


^tOT 

cu. 
3 Is. 


6 
6 


6 
6 


18 
24 


7 

7M 


6 
6 


8.70 
10.80 


2.60 
322 


3.85 
4.77 


7.55 
9 35 


2.25 
2.79 


4.45 

5.52 


6.20 

7.68 


2.30 
2.85 


4 60 

5 70 



*A 1:2:3 mix is much used for curb work, especially where no plastering of the surfa< 

is allowed. 

fThe leaner l:2y 2 :5 mix is generally employed for curbs which will be finished by a 
mortar plaster coat/ This practice is now not favored by many persons, but wh^re it i^ 
allowed an additional allowance should be in the estimate for tbe cement used in the plastered 
coat 



122 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



CONCRETE DRIVEWAYS 

Concrete is used for driveways to garages, around the house 
and barns, and about industrial plants, also for alleys, roads 
and pavements generally. 

This construction is permanent, non-slippery, dustless, 
uniform of surface, easily cleaned and reasonable in cost. 

Fig. 88 shows cross-sections for the three different types of 
driveway construction. 

The mixture used is 1 :2:3. 



4 d£ for med bar not 
Continuous Across Joints 



Crown $ per ft Either Conca ve or Convex 




f2'w 20'- 



MESH WEIGHT 
44 LB PER 100 SOFT 



■* ---^— 



_k 



METAL 
CENTER 
JOINT 

> >j< — ?> 




~4' TO 12 



8,000 LB. WHEEL LOAD 



2' 




Crown £ 'per Ft 



*7 




s 



MESH WEIGHT 
44 LB.~ /00 SO FT 

/2' TO 20 1 - 

DOWELS, S' C C. 



6 



METAL 

Center 
Joint 





< — 2'-->i< — 2' — H< 4' To 12 " 



: 2'- 



— 2'— A 



/0. 000 lb. Wheel load 



3" 



12' to 20' 



Mesh weight 

44- LB PER 100 SQ.FT. 



CROWN ^ PER FT EITHER CONCAVE OR CONVEX 








-*>'--: 



* 



7*£ 



— 2' - 




METAL 

CtNTFR 
JOINT 



4' TO 12' 





?'— : 



/S, 000 LB. WHEEL LOAD 
Fig. &% — ( as uectioae of concrete db wfa\* for various loaiis. 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



123 



TABLE 30 

Quantities for Concrete Roads and Pavements 







rw^ l 




y"1 1 * T f "1 


Material Required per Linear Foot 






Thicl 


rcness 


Cubic i ards 


of Pavement — 1:2:3 Mix 




Square 
Yards per 






Concrete 
per Linear 




Width 








Stone or 


in Feet 


Mile 


Sides, 


Center, 


Foot of 


Cement 


Sand 


Pebbles 






Inches 


Inches 


Pavement 


Barrels 


Cubic Yards 


Cubic Yards 


9 


5,280 


6 


8 


.204 


.355 


.106 


.157 


10 


5,867 


6 


8 


.227 


394 


.118 


. 175 


16 


9,387 


6 


8 


.362 


.630 


.188 


_'79 


16 


1 1 


7 


9 


.411 


.715 


.214 


.316 


16 


1 t 


8 


10 


.461 


.802 


.240 


.355 


18 


10,560 


6 


8 


.407 


.708 


.212 


.313 


18 


i 1 


7 


9 


.463 


.806 


.241 


.357 


18 


h 


8 


10 


.519 


.903 


.270 


.400 


20 


11.733 


6 


8 


453 


.788 


. 235 


.340 


20 


1 1 


7 


9 


.514 


.887 


265 


.393 


20 


If 


S 


10 


.576 


1.002 


300 


444 


24 


14,080 


6 


8 


.543 


.945 


.'82 


.418 


24 


1 | 


7 


9 


.617 


1 . 074 | 


.321 


.475 


24 


1 | 


8 


10 


.691 


1 202 


.359 


.532 



Quantities for 1000 Square Yards Concrete Base for Pavements 

UNIFORM THICKNESS THROUGHOUT 





Cubic Yards 

of Concrete 

per 1 ,000 Sq. 

Yds. of 

Pavement 


MIX 


Thick- 


1:2:4 


1:2', :5 


1:3:6 


ness 

of 

Base 


Ce- 
ment 

Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu. 
Yds. 


Stone 

Cu. 
Yds. 


Ce- 
ment 
Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu. 
Yds. 


S ne 
Cu. 
Yds. 


Ce- 
ment 

Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu. 

Yds. J 


Stone 
Cu. 
Yds. 


5 in. 

6 " 

7 " 

8 M 


139 
167 
194 
222 


210 
252 
294 
335 


62 

87 
100 


124 

149 

173 
198 


172 
206 

241 
275 


64 

77 

89 

104 


128 
153 
179 
204 


147 
177 
206 
235 


65 

78 

91 

104 


135 
157 

183 

209 



Quantities for 1000 Square Yards Concrete Roads and Pavements 



CROWNED SURFACE 



Thickness 




Cu. Yds. 


MIX 


Average 
Thick- 


of Con- 
crete per 

1,000 Sq. 


1:1 H:3 


1:2:3 




1:2:4 








Ce- 


1 

Sand Stone 


Ce- 


Sand 


Stone 


Ce- 


Sand 


Stone 


Sides 


Center 


ness 


Yds. of 


ment 


Cu. 


Cu. 


ment 


Cu. 


Cu. 


ment 


Cu. 


Cu 








Pavem't 


Bbls. 


Yds. 


Yds. 


Bbls. 


Yds. 


Yds 


Bbls. 


Yds. 


Yds 


5 in. 


7 in. 


6.33 in. 


176 


336 


74 


150 


306 


91 


136 


266 


79 


157 


5 " 


7H " 


6.67 " 


1S5 


353 


78 


157 


322 


96 


143 


279 


83 


165 


6 t4 


8 " 


7.33 " 


204 


389 


86 


174 


355 


106 


157 


30 S 


91 


182 


6 M 


8H " 


7.67 M 


213 


406 


89 


181 


370 


111 


164 


321 


95 


190 


*J 4 1 


9 


8.33 " 


231 


441 


97 


196 


402 


120 


178 


34 S 


103 


206 


7 " 


9H " 


8.67 " 


241 


460 


101 


205 


420 


125 


1S6 


364 


109 


215 


8 " 


10 


9.33 " 


259 


495 


109 


220 


450 


135 


200 


391 


116 


231 


8 " 


103; \ " 


9.67 " 


269 


514 


113 


- W J 


468 


140 


207 


406 


120 


240 



J 



i: 



Til J \ l I \ HANDBOOK 



it 



f 






ENGINF FOUNDATIONS 









■ - I 1 < .| l per 



A t. 



• , 



>lid f o< H: be ol ued tl< n 

i e ] i J 'he foundat ion n eii mu 
i ]jj bold th( • ii| ml \ w h 



'] 


















J I J fit Ill 



II , a b eesl a in I ■ Boll 

1 • I ■ Id in 






pi: 






wii iij I 



p| , 



I, 






I 



H 









1' I 



M 



fl 



l< ! t I 

at 1 r end i 

if 1 



' ■ < 



- 



> I pi [ M 

a h1 i ti I j t adjust- 

, , ,, (I 



■ 



i i 










1] i n 
t 

PtPi I 

ABOUND ! ACh 

Anchor Bolt 



t a 






kb< 



i < < ■ 

a a i 

I 



I 1 



- 



1 1 



> 



i 



i 






! 



\ 1 



\\ 



• / r 






.. < 



OC 






f 1 






all' 






( 



4 



1 1: 






i 









( 



< 


















I UI.V I- H TS A SM Ml 



I 















. 









h 



i> 





/ 




\ 




tun 







-J 







. 




/yt 






# * 











rVA-\~N 












F 












I 






























..*.., 






1 ii i. . i i H -DbuuK 



Tj 












t 












• 



X 



Box Culvert* 



f 



• : 






uar« r« • angular croa»HBe< 

It Is -i square 
- v IJ ai >r< at ea< end t 






fa 

iir i t v "■ 

LID ! t 1X6 I 

-j j in ] iU 

an\ uJ b- buili 



I J Li 

mil 



1 2 



. i 






i 1» u g e ad. 

S ; it hi * 



u 



Arch C ulverts 

Ltaii box Hi, 

1 gur ■•! - gn fo 



Puuiof 

a>c^ removes 











~~\ 



/tore 




H 



4 








H 



-_/* tf 





>* v 



I r * t ^nh o # 



ON CONC R ETE CONSTRUC1 [ON 






culvert of ben o1 i ti -; -m win ml i olid and firm. h 
s hardpan or bard clay. 

Form- are made as shown in Fij 92. For further inform i- 
tion on forms s< ag I to 85. 

If good aggregates aro obtainable, the ra :tur i c - 
of 1:2:4. Reinforcement must be cai ully pi ed 
and held rigidly in ]»• ition. 



CO//Y0 




/" 
Boards 



F . — Typitv*! i .11 an*h culvert 



mbi to ■ i ■ 

s for additional si or* 



i, 



itio 1 



The d of th rir 

je t- • cent- 



128 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



CONCRETE RETAINING WALLS 

On account of the low cost, great strength and adaptability 
rf concrete, retaining wails are usually built of this material. 



Types 

There are a number of different types of retaining walls. 
The following three are most commonly used: 

The GRAVITY wall, which is perhaps the most common 
type and requires no complicated reinforcing. It depends 
upon its own shape and weight to resist the earth pressure. 
It is the simplest to construct and for walls under 20 feet in 
height, is often the most economical. 

The CANTILEVER reinforced wall in which the weight 
of the earth behind the wall is utilized to prevent overturning. 
This wall requires very heavy and careful reinforcing. 

The COUNTERFORT wall, in which counterforts are 
built at "short intervals, tying the floor portion, which is held 
down by the weight of the earth to the vertical portion of the 
wall. 

Foundation 

Excavate to below frost line and to firm enough soil to with- 
stand the pressure at the toe of the wall due to tendency to 
overturn. 




A common rule for gravity walls is to make the base 4/10 
10 5/10 as wide as the height of the wall. The front of the 
wall is usually given a slope, or batter, of 1 inch to 2 inch* 
per foot of height. The back of the wall on the earth side 
should be preferably stepped. 



Forms 

Forms may be const ructed of \ x /i inch or 2 inch lumber, 
held in place by 2x0 inch bracing and struts. The struts 
are nailed to stakes driv< in the ground, as shown in Fig. 93. 



ON CONC R E TE CO N S T KUCTl" 



:<) 




< pin 

a- 1 1 1 s i « > 



!-> 



a lvv: i 

tl 



COrf M0ULD/N6 



ap- 

trance of a l- 

i rete retaining 

wall. The copin 

2 or 3 n 
hes b< on<l i 
fa< e, ami is from 
8 to 18 incl 
high, depending 

on the bi hi i 
the wall. I >r- 

- should be 
i l< 1 1 or rounded, 
which is don< I 
nailing riang 

trip or a cove- 
mohlm in the 
forms. It is better 

to build the coping at the une time as the rest of the wall, 
but if this is not possible, it can be done later. 



detail 

F0RC0PIN6 



FORMS FOR RETAINING WALL 



Fig. 93. — Forms for gravity type ri-tniiiiag wall. 



Drainage 

Of especial importance is the drainage of water from the 
earth held by the wall. A layer of loose stom - grave], or 
cinders, should be placed directly behind the wall, and weep 
holes from 6 to 10 feet apart should be provided. These i n 
be made by inserting during construction 3 or 4-inch drain 
tile at the earth line at the face of the wall, as shown in Figur 
94. Back filling should be carefully done, soil being thoroi hly 
compacted. The earth is deposited in layers about 8 inche 
thick, depending on the character of the material, each layer 
being tamped before the next layer is placed. 



Finish 



Since retaining walls do not withstand any pre ure during 
construction, the forms can be stripped a soon as the concrete 




H ] \T1 



ji < i) hoi 



J 




\ 



0* 










s4i 






TfT 



fc 












* 



: 







- 







i> 









I ( n h 1 

it own 

Tl v 

i 

i u 

il III! 1 

In ■ ' I • \ 
■ | i 

1 1 > 1 

I t I 



m< 



il. a... I Hi 












f MEM V\ l)\'( r 












I 



ill 






, 



« 









p 



» » » 






• 



f ' < 1 



i 
i 









) 

ind I 



A 



M 







I 






1 









J 






« . 






< | 





















I 






1 I 







P 






I I < 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 131 



CHAPTER V. 

HOW TO ESTIMATE QUANTITIES AND COSTS 
ON REINFORCED CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 

The purpose of this chapter is to describe in detail how to 
"take off" material quantities (concrete, form and steel 
quantities) in one operation from construction plans and to 
follow these quantities through a systematic routine of unit 
pricing to the summary which gives final erection costs of a 
structure. 



A typical example of "taking off" quantities from the plans 
and assigning unit prices is given for an interior bay 20 x 20 
feet of a reinforced concrete building. The details accom- 
panying this text are representative of plans that are furnished 
by architects to contractors for estimating costs and placing 
bids of complete erection. 

The "take off" must necessarily follow certain structural 
divisions, as the unit items upon which it is possible to place 
a price vary with different parts of the structure as (1) footings, 
(2) columns (exterior and interior columns listed separately 
as they vary structurally) and (3) floor construction (divided 
into slabs, beams and girders because the prices of concrete, 
form and steel units vary with these members). 

The pricing units, such as the cubic foot or yard of concrete, 
the square foot of contact area for the forms and the pound for 
the steel, must also be observed. It is customary to keep each 
floor separate as an aid to checking. 

In the summary of floor quantities consideration must also 
be given to the number of times each form can be used over 
without alteration. In the building illustrated in Fig. 95, 
the slab, beam and girder forms for the second and third 
floor are the same as the first, so the only form change is for 
erecting and stripping. 



I 



•v 


















I V 



• . . 



■Bt« 



i 



% % 



f*m 






I ■ 



! 



f-4AJ 






























/ ' 



»• 











r, a/ 7 






* 











• , <y , 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



133 



DATE: 



TAKE OFF SHEET SHefr *' 

CONTRACTOR'S NAML 

JOB- 3 STORY AND B'SM'T FACTORY 



roonnos 

I' . 1 - — ^rr 

I 
r , ■ . — X_ 
- . 



k a'-o" 5Q. >A 




COL UMNS 



CONOR E TE a FORMS 



S'O 



fi 



4*0 



it 



4*-0 



S'-O 







4<-0 



7 2<-0" 



i-i -. 



2'-0 



,/ 



t f'~8" 



l'-8 



'■' 




SECTION 



M" 



8-0" 



if 



/i4- 



r-2" 



tot* 



conc. 



/v 



tt 



/<-2 



'/ 



TOTAL F 



85 



fS 



m± 



43 



2<-0 



t 



TOTA 



9-4* 



tol 




I'- 8" 




RMS 



L FORMS 



/J-/, 



M 



■I 



r-4" 



mm 



r/RjT nooR Slab 




ten 




: 2O'-0" ~ 

FIRST FL OOR BEAMS 




r-4 



f 



4 



7 f -4" 



4 



CON- ?. 

7 



13 '■ 7. 



FOAMS 



/J- 7/ 



COM 



FOR 



79 



_iZ 



75 




X 



X 




91 



i/ 



/ 



24 



S 



CON 



tf7, 



FORMS 



TOTAL COtrCMCOLS 



TOT»L FORM 



2O'-0\2O'-4 04j 



20-0 



20'-0 



L 8T 



FIRST FLOOR GIRDERS 

1 




SECOND FLOOR SAME AS FIRST 



THIRD FLOOR SAMt AS FIRST 



ROOF 



INDICATES THE 

rr\ cohcrete quantities 

TAKE ft OF Ifi THIS 
PART OF ESTIMATE 



rttDICATES FORT 
QUANTITIES FOR 
SAME 



2 



f'-O' 



f-4 



CO 



FORMS 



20^0 



CON 



s> 



/V 20W 



7'-8" 



f-8 



Ji 



FOR 



20*4 



CO/I?. 



20'Q 



3 



MS 



FORMS 



TOTAL COS C W 



CO 



Ft RMS 



VCRf 



2 frO* 20-0 



O'-d 



7'-0" 



7^4 



" 20'0 



7^8 



ir 



'IOOR 



73 



24 



STEEL 



SUE N? 



'A"0\ 24 



L'fSTH 



7 



'/4 



123 



X 



312 



X 



/SO 



JJA 



400 




S3 



£3 



160 



TOTAL S7FEL 



10 



8 



'</ 



7<4 



ft 



3^0 



7.5 
267 



lO'lO 



ft 



2.67 



.16 



STL EL 



15-0 



6' 6 



STi EL 



S 



'U 14 



15-0 



>/4 



74 



67 



HL 



SAF, E At 



ft 



uVl 



20-0 



CO 



J 




1ST 



/I 7 



S3 



34 



204 



TOTAL CONC.f-2-t &R 



922 



*M 



40 



4/6 



STL EL 



204 



264 



64 



328 X 



232 



12 



244 



245 



15 



2.04 



16 



260 



123 



71 



134 



M'-Q 



4-6 



7.5 



84 



STEEL 



TOTAL STL EL fit COL 



S 733 X 



23'0 



2x3 



2r3 



.37 



.26 



EL 



22-6 



25-3 



79 '-3 \ 3^-3 



I 3 



2 3 '-3 



TOTAL 



V8 



2 



TOTA 



is. 



27-0 261 

A ~q .Of 



30 



20 



7.5 



.37 



ST2.EL 



267 



S7 



EL 



STEE, IN FLOOR 



23'0 



2M 



22^6 



74x3 



74 



70 



25-3 



37 



26 



75 



7.5 



JV" 



S'-Q 



.37 



2T 02.04 



26 L 9204 



95 



347 



37 



384 



203 



228 
67 



498 



1425 



250 



720 



707 



7/4 



57 



94 



6*4/ 



S 



J7 



67 



EL 



, STEEt 72J S R. 



/09 



47 



936 



527/ 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



135 



This same condition of using the forms over applies to the 
columns; but inmost buildings column sizes change slightly 
and the cost of cutting the larger columns down to size 
required for the higher stories is slight. It is therefore usual 
to average the column erection, stripping, and remaking as 

one amount. 

Sometimes more than one full set of floor forms is necessary 
to speed up the work and the quantities for making and erect- 
ing are increased proportionately. 

Explanation of Schedule Sheets 

Sheet No. 1 — "Take-off Sheet" is the systematic tabulation 
of (1) quantities of concrete, (2) surface contact area of forms 
and (3) pounds of steel as taken from the plans furnished by 
the architect. All dimensions are taken off in feet and inches 
and the totals obtained in the unit upon which prices for the 
material required are obtained (concrete — cubic yards; forms 
— in square feet of contact area, and steel in lineal feet of 
different sizes to be reduced to pounds). 

Sheet No. 2 — 'Tricing Sheet" is the systematic tabulation 
of quantities obtained from the totals of sheet No. 1 for the 
different structural divisions of the structure and the assigning 
of prices to these totals. Note that in assigning prices to these 
quantities there are two separate divisions — material costs 
and labor costs. It is well to maintain this division throughout 
the estimate schedule. Preliminary quotation can be obtained 
on material prices, but the labor cost is uncertain and should 
be carefully estimated and conservatively priced. 

Sheet No. 3 — "Summary Sheet" is the grouping of the totals 
from the pricing sheet No. 2 and the assigning of percentage 
to material and labor costs for general job expenses, con- 
tingencies and profit. The total of summary items gives bid 
price for the job. 






I ! HANDBOOK 



QUANTUM ^> 01 CI Ml M MORTAR FOR BRICK 

AND HOLLOW TILE WORK 









u 















p 



•in r 1 

nt ; <\ 



i 



I 



1 1. 



d. Pol !r 

1 Hi) i> ! n ill. n I ■ 






■ 












'1 






mat ad< I th( i 

) ! ' : ■ I . M a 1 1 \ 

all< i ad tei \ 






i ) 



t 









li: 



■ in 



i 



I 



I 



% 



I in J \ 






it 



If 



I 



a 






■ 






and 












i 



■ <-l 



tin' 



! 









1 






IV 

I 






. 



Mjua 



P c 



•« ill 






■K 



' 






li 






1 















J 






i \ < t f , 1 4k 




. 



* n 



J ( 









' 



it 



* 



A 



I * 













t 



» • 








f f- 



" 





/VyC/y 



li 



r> 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



137 



TABLE 31 
Quantities of Cement and Sand Needed for 

One Cubic Yard of Mortar 



PROPORTIONS BY PARTS 










Barrels of 
Cement 


Cubic Yards 








of Sand 


Cement 




Sand 













8.31 








l 


4.88 


0.72 






IH 


3.87 


0.86 






2 


3.21 


0.95 






2V 2 


2.74 


1.01 






3 


2.39 


1.06 






4 


1.90 


1.13 



TABLE 32 

♦QUANTITIES OF MORTAR, CEMENT AND SAND FOR LAYING 

1000 BRICK 



Width of 


Cu. Ft. 

of 
Mortar 


1:2 Mortar 


1:2H Mortar 


1:3 Mortar i 


1:334 Mortar 


Joint 


Cement 
Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu. Yd. 


Cement 
Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu, Yd, 


Cement 
Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu. Yd. 


Cement 
Bbls. 


Sand 
Cu. Yd. 


% in. 

H ■ 


10 
15 
18 

22 


1.2 
1.8 
2.1 
2.6 


0.35 
. 53 
0.63 
0.77 


1.0 
1.5 

1.8 
2.2 


0.37 
0.56 

0.67 
0.82 


0.9 
1.3 
1.6 
1.9 


0.39 
0.59 
0.71 
86 


0.8 
1.2 

1.4 
1.7 


0.41 
0.61 
0.73 
0.90 



* Note: — In using this table, bear in mind that quantities for brick work are only 
approximate, because there is sure to be considerable variation in thickness of joints and 
in the size of brick. 



CONCRETE BUILDING BLOCK AND CLAY TILE 




tThia information on Clay Tile was furnished by The Hollow Building Tile Association 




138 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



TABLE 33 
QUANTITIES OF MATERIAL FOR CONCRETE 

Materials for One Cubic Yard of Rammed Concrete Based 
Using Pebbles or Crushed Stone with Dust Removed 



on 





Bbls. Cement 




Cu. Yds. Pebbles 


Mixture 


(4 bags per bbl.) 


Cu, Yds. Sand 


or - ne 


l:l^:2H 


2.09 


0.46 


0.77 


1:1^:3 


1.91 


0.42 


. 85 


1:2:3 


1.74 


0.52 


0.77 


1:2 :3H 


1.61 


0.48 


0.83 


1:2:4 


1.51 


0.45 


0.89 


1:2^:4 


1.39 


0.51 


0.82 


1:23^:5 


1.24 


0.46 


0.92 


1:3:5 


1.16 


0.52 


0.86 


1:3:5J4 


1.11 


0.49 


0.90 


1:3:6 


1.06 


0.47 


0.94 



(From Taylor & Thompson's "Concrete, Plain and Leinforced/ 



TABLE 34 

Average Weights of Aggregates Used for Concrete 

Size \Yi inch down to V£ inch — dust screened out. 



Sand 

Pebbles . . . 

Lime- 1 one. 

Granite . . 
Trap \i k 



Lbs. per Cu Yd 



2430-2 

2*00 
2 
2600 
2700 



TABLE 35 

Average Weight per Cubic Foot of Concrete in Place 



Gravel Concrete 
Limestone Con<T«-te. 
Trap Rock Concret* 
Cinder Concrete . . 



Pounds i Cul 



• • 









11 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



139 



Typical Compressive St 
grade of commercial 




TABLE 36 

ength Test of Concrete using a good 
es and a medium consistency 



Mixture 


7 Days 


28 Days 


6 Months 


1:1^:3 

1 :2 -4 

1 :2 Y 2 :5 

1 :3 :6 


Lbs. per sq. in. 

1600 
1100 

800 

500 


Lbs. per sq. in. 

2700 
2100 
1600 
1300 


Lbs. per sq. in. 

3700 
3000 
2100 
1800 



Ar 



TABLE 37 
COVERING CAPACITY OF MORTAR AND STUCCO 

Covered by One Barrel (4 Bags) of Cement in Various Mixes 





MIX 
Parts bv 




THICKNESS OF < 


COAT 








1 








Volume 


M Inch 


% Inch 


Y 2 Inch 


% Inch 


1 Inch 


Cement Sand 


Sq. Ft. 


Sq. Ft. 


Sq. Ft. 


Sq. Ft. 


Sq. Ft. 




L 1 


266 


177 


133 


89 


66 




L 1H 


336 


226 


168 


112 


84 




L 2 


404 


270 


202 


135 


101 




L 23^ 


472 


314 


236 


157 


118 


*i 


L 3 


542 


362 


271 


181 


136 




L W2 


612 


408 


306 


204 


153 




I 4 


682 


455 


341 


227 


171 



Area Covered by One Cubic Yard of Sand in Various Mixes 



MIX 

Parts by 
Volume 



\i Inch 



THICKNESS OF COAT 



S Inch 



H Inch 



?i Inch 



Cement Sand 


Sq. Ft. 


Sq. Ft. 


i i 


1800 


1200 


l Hi 


1508 


1006 


1 2 


1364 


910 


1 2H 


1282 


855 


n 3 


1222 


815 


i sVi 


1178 


785 


1 4 


1148 


765 



Sq. Ft. 

900 
754 
682 
641 
611 
5S9 
574 



Sq. Ft 
600 

503 
455 
427 
407 
393 
383 



1 Inch 



Sq. Ft. 

450 
377 
341 
321 

306 
294 
287 



*1:3 is the mix most used for stucco work. 

NOTE: The above areas are calculated for average sand and with no allowance for 
waste. In estimating, allowance should be made for waste. When figured for stucco, 
the loss of mortar in forming the keys behind the lath for the first coat should be taken into 
account. 



10 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



1 

1 
1 

1 
1 



TABLE 38 



AMOUNT* OF MIXING WATER FOR CONCRETE 



Proportions 



ind 



U 



Stone 

3 
3 

4 
G 



-Mixing Water 
tired per Bag 



Minimum 
(gallons) 






Maximum 

(gallons; 



6 



Mixing Wati-r 

R*q Cubic } ard 



M mum 
(galiont 






Maximum 

(gal 




AMOUNT* OF 



A age 



4 U38 

8 



MIXING WATER FOR CONCRETE 
ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

1 \ 3 Mi One Course 



FLOORS, 



r 100 Squar 



M ium 

l 



KJO . } u/da 



Max 



— 



4 

7 






I 



M; 



• I 















6 7<K) 

7 
I 

IM.fHKi 



8,430 


J' 



■ i 



e than .nnfr.vim.^ « 

aggregat amom aand and £ 

Baou ana si a , ( 



d. 

I 



*aanmTout « 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



141 



TABLE 39 
REINFORCED CONCRETE LINTELS* 




Zr reinfora'na bars 




5pan 



Width 




SUPPORTING 8-INCH MASONRY WALLS 



ize of Lintel, 
Width x Depth 



6*X 8'... 

8"x 8'... 
8*xl0"... 
8*xl2 ff ... 
8'xl4 ff ... 



Span (Width of Opening) 



2 



tt 



* * * • 



No. & Size 
of Bars 



2 
2 
2 



3/ " 

78 
tr 

8 

78 



3'— 0" 



No. & Size 
of Bars 



2 

2 

2 
2 



3 " 

78 

78 



3'— 10* 



No. & Size 
of Bars 



2— %" 
2— W 

2— 



J's' 



4'— 6 



No. & Size 
of Bars 



2 
2 
2 







l /2 



2" 



No. & Size 
of Bar 



2 
2 



H* 




" 



6' — 0* 



No. & Size 
of Bars 



2 

2 






SUPPORTING 12-INCH MASONRY WALLS 



Size of Lintel, 
Width x Depth 



8*x 8' 

8'xl0 r 
8'xl2* 

8'xl4* 



Span (Width of Opening) 



2'— A" 



No. & Size 
of Bars 



2 
9 






3'— 



3'— 10* 



No. & Size 
of Bars 



No. & Size 
of Bars 



9 3 '* 

- /4 

2 w * 



2 

9 






2 

2 



«' 



4'— 6" 



No. & Size 
of Bars 



5'— 2 



No. & Size 
of Bars 



A 



2-y 2 



78 
1/ * 



9 
9 



^8* 



H 



6'— 0* 



No. & Size 
of Bars 



2—1* 



*Loads supported by lintels are difficult to definitely determine. The load depends upon 
the location of openings above the lintel , upon the loads coming on the wall above the lintel, 
if it is a load-bearing wall; and upon the arching action of the wall material itself. For this 
reason conservative assumptions have been used in preparing the table, and it should be 
adequate for any average condition. 

All bars specified are round bars and they are to be hooked at the ends as shown in the 
sketch. When the opening is of another size than those given in the table, use the figur 
given for the next largest opening. 



ea 




142 THE ATLAS HANDBOO] 



PORTLAND CEMENT 

Concrete dates b k to the Roman- y secured good 

results with concrete made of a mi are of slak I lime, volcanic 

du^t. sand and broken 6 me. Tl - combination, though 

rude in comparison with the Portland i menl concrete of 

the present da. | roduced an artificial stone which has >od 
the U nearly 2,000 j Ma works and roa( of 

oncn >uilt in Italy and southern France long a ur< today 
in a fine st. e of pr< >n ion. 

Portland cement is of mode t origin. Joseph Aspdin of 

eds, England look out 8 latent und< I date of D< ml r 

15t 181 , for the aanufaeture of Portland <• m< m. 11 was 

so -lied l e if resembled in color a well-kni i lim< ^ne 

juarr- 1 on 1 I iand of Pori nd, which w i1 n< idered 

the hard' t >ne known. The mas cture of Poi d 

• ■ begun in 182 , but the j og - w s slow until 
tbout 1 w a, througl pr< n i hods i I j neral 

r ignit 'i rits as a Luildii aterial, it- < mmei d 

sue v in . 

ut " time he d nu! iu r < I md oem 1 \ 
taken up bj thi J r< i Germ* d b oi their 

i >rt i th thi * in md 

th< iali *f tl j luct vv gl I. 

t G -man J'-rtland cem p - w< I in Stettin 

in IS 

Portland Cement in Americ 

Portland Ceni us first ighl tl l'i 

in 1 d was i ma wed in 1 >unti 1 

'J if tl i Poi i - 1 ry 

- lias been i I t 

ag< From a 11 . 1 Lmeri 

rapid! fr in tnetl pp] 

for. l ui ll 1 Portland rem* 

are superior to a i in N nly thi I ut 

th< - Peni in v> huh i ir Nortl 

| Mill j^ • ■ and eel da. 

than a ruin ai L: .and in 1. 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



143 



In the early days in Germany and England, as well as in 
the United States, Portland cement was burned in dome kilns, 
much like those used for burning lime, the mixture in various 
stages being put into these kilns with alternate layers of coal 
or coke. The output of such a kiln was seldom more than 
100 barrels a day. 

This process was continued until the early nineties, when 
The Atlas Portland Cement Company began experimenting 
with a steel cylindrical tube, known as the rotary kiln. It 
was rapidly developed by this Company and is being used 
today for calcining Portland cement in every mill in the 
United States and is gradually being adopted in Germany 
and England. These rotary kilns produce from 500 to 3,000 
barrels per day, according to their size. More than anything 
else they have been instrumental in reducing the cost of manu- 
facture to such an extent as to make Portland cement an 
economical building material. 

Modern Portland cement is a chemical compound. It is 
manufactured from a mixture of two materials, one a lime- 
stone or a softer material like chalk, which is nearly pure lime, 
and second, shale, which is like clay, or else clay itself. Port- 
land cement can be manufactured anywhere that these 
ingredients are found. But it cannot be manufactured without 
the one material which is largely limestone, and the other 
material which is largely clay, and the two materials must be 
mixed in very exact proportions determined by tests, the pro- 
portions being changed as often as necessary to allow for any 
variation in the chemical composition of the materials. 

In the Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania, where a substantial 
proportion of the entire output of the country is manufactured, 
there are extensive natural deposits of what is known as 
cement rock, which contains the ingredients needed in practi- 
cally the proper proportions for the manufacture of Portland 
cement. 

To manufacture Portland cement the raw materials are 
quarried, crushed and pulverized, mixed in the proper pro- 
portions, and the pulverized raw materials of the correct 
chemical composition are then fed into rotary kilns, where 
the mixture is burned to what is known as cement clinker. 



^ 



144 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



Briefly described, a rotary kiln is a steel cylinder 6 to 12 feet 
in diameter and from 60 to 250 feet in length. It is continuous 
in operation — the raw material is fed into one end an- by 
reason of the inclined position of the kiln and its r< >t ary motion, 
the material is passed into the lower end and discharged 

During the passage of this raw material from one end of the 
kiln to the other, perfe< < alcination is obtained by means of 
an air bla^ earning powdered coal, the coal being set on 
fire as it enters the kiln. The clinker r< lilting from the burning 
of the raw material in this way is then cooled and pulverized 

and becomes the Portland cement of commerce. 



ATLAS PORTLAND CEMENT 

Wonderful as the advance of the general industry lias been, 
the growth of The Atlas Portland Cement Com} has been 

even more ren rkable. Beginning in 1892 at < topiay, Penn- 
sylvania, with a manufacturing caj of 250 barrels per 
day, its production has steadily increased through the variou 
plants at Northampton Pa Hannibal Mi ouri; Hud- i, 
New York; Lee< , Alal ma; and Indej ndem . Kansas 
Daily shipments of 300 cars oi about 11,000 tons of Portland 

Cement, are not unusual. 

At Northampton, the plant co^ re about 213 acr< Whi 
in full operation, the N thampton plant consumt about 
9,000 tons of law i <?k daily, and empl - 2,700 men. Th 
igures, which 'in rn the Northampton plant alone give an 
idea of tl i apacity ol ( Vtlas plants a wholi By virtue 
of it- ■ irmous production The Atlas Portland Cement 
( n 'any s able d< op and retain in its sen i < the most 
lied ting talent in 1 Portland cement industry, whi <h 

insure- in At la- thoroughly reliable and uniform pi duct. 

The method- of ma ifacture of Portland cement developed 

and] rf< • Tin Ail a s Portland Cement Company e 

been continu I with the atest i and t< such an ctent 

bat these i bhods are i bc tandard } practi dly 

other i m< iu Lufacturing company. In th< u- 

ture of Atl; Portland ( he raw materials ai ar 

1U3 i, and car mi I after automatic v. ighing 

machine have weighed exactly the right quantity of cement 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 145 



rock and the right quantity of limestone. These materials 
are then mixed thoroughly by automatic mixers, which are 
constantly controlled by chemists in charge of the operation, 
not only during the day, but night and day. 

With this control, the mixture never varies. In fact, at 
the Atlas plants from the time the rock is quarried until the 
cement is packed into bags and barrels, the work is done by 
machinery controlled in all its stages by experts. In plain 
words, we manufacture cement scientifically and not by 
accident. The finished product also is constantly tested and 
the mill never operates for a moment without the control of 
the mill chemists. 

One grade of cement only — the highest — is manufactured, 
and every barrel shipped from the Atlas mills meets all stand- 
ard specifications for Portland cement, and also complies with 
Atlas specifications, under which each of our mills operates 
and which are more severe and more exacting than the require- 
ments of standard specifications. 



ATLAS-WHITE NON-STAINING PORTLAND 

CEMENT 

Atlas-White Portland Cement is a true Portland cement. 
Its chemical composition is practically identical with that of 
Atlas Portland Cement. The strength of Atlas-White is 
equal to that of gray Atlas, and is guaranteed to meet the 
standard requirements for Portland cement, It is, therefore, 
a true Portland cement that has the same physical charac- 
teristics as the gray Atlas, and may be used with the same 
manipulation and for the same class of work where a white 
color is desired. 

Atlas-White was placed on the market for the purpose of 
supplying the demand for a high-grade white Portland cement 
that was non-staining and could be used where a white or 
light tone effect of coloring was wanted. Its non-staining 
property makes it desirable for setting and pointing fine 
textured stone such as marble, light granite, etc. It will not 
stain or streak these natural rocks, and they are as firmh 
cemented together when bedded or set in Atlas-White as if 
they were one solid stone. 






It 






1 i A I 



























\ i 






I. 






at 









ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



147 



CHAPTER VI. 

SPEEDY CONSTRUCTION WITH 



ATLAS 



UMNITE CEMENT 




Atlas Lumnite Cement is a hydraulic cement which develops 
in 24 hours greater strength than that developed by other 
building cements in 28 days. For concrete construction where 
speed is desirable or w T here emergency makes speed a necessity, 
LUMNITE Cement gives a service possible with no other 
material — full strength 28-day concrete in 24 hours. 



The 
shown 
testin 



remarkable characteristics of Lumnite Cement are 
below in the report of tests made by the well known 

—the Robert W. Hunt Company: 



engineers 



Soundness (Boiling Test) 



Six hours without any signs of cracking, warping or scaling. 



Setting Time 



Initial Set 
Hrs. Min. 



Final Set 
Hrs. Min. 



Vicat Needle 4 

Gillmore Needle 5 



20 
25 



5 

6 



45 
30 



Fineness 



Residue -on No. 200 sieve 3.4 % 

Tensile Strength 
1 :3 Ottawa Sand Mortar Briquettes 
(Results in pounds per square inch) 

1 day 2 days 3 days 7 days 28 days 3 mos. 1 year 



Average 464 



487 



518 



537 



561 



591 



628 



A 






n j: i n \ \ i) i; - ] 












n 






























/ tla I & i 
■ >' ■ i ; ' C9-26 equire fo 

nly p j uan 

(UQ - 28 






" 






■ 















I 















~~ < 



> 









W i r 
I < I \ I 

pom per 



I 












1 



' 



I :<r 

I 






/ 



' 



/ 

I 






f 



/ 



/ < r ( < 

r9-167 / / an 

i 



i 






$ K. 









p 






p< 






I 



I fc 1 



J 



1 



~ A L 



J 















_ 



WJ 

J 



>■< 



J 01 















/ 



M J 






l 



I 



1 






( 



i 















'! 






i 






I i-t 












- 






1 









", 1 


















J 



} I 



£ 






ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



149 




Fig. 97. — Enormous precast piers used at Bremerton, Washington. By means of 

Lumnite Cement these piers could be handled 24 hours after casting. 



The high early strength of LUMNITE cement is due to its 
chemical composition, and results from the use of high-grade 
aluminum ore (Bauxite) as its principal raw material. 



LUMNITE is not "quick-setting." It affords the usual 
time for mixing, transporting and pouring into forms, but after 
setting, its high strength develops with great rapidity. 

Mixed with sand, stone and water it will form concrete. No 
other material is needed to give this 28-day strength within 
24 hours. 

The proportions of the mix will vary with the character of 
the sand and stone and the requirements of the work. Rich 
mixes, especially in large masses, should not be used. L'sers 
have found that mortar mixes richer than 1 \2Y 2 generally do 
nnt ori\rp hpst, rpsnlts in floor tonniner. sidewalk finishes, or 



150 THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



other uses, and that concrete mixes approximating 1:2:4 are 
satisfactory for most purposes. 

Use the least amount of mixing water possible that will give 
plastic, workable concrete. Often the plasticity or workability 
of the concrete can be improved with less mixing water \>\ 
varying the ratio of fine to coarse aggregates. Too much 
mixing water not only lowers the strength of the concrete but 
also makes it more porous and less durable. 

The following table containing 24-hour compressive strength 
results on 1:2:4 LUMMTE cement concrete illustrates 
effect of the amount of mixing water on the strength of the 
concrete: 

With 5.26 gals, of water per bag of cement 5253 lbs. per sq. in. 
" 6.00 " " " 4468 '• 

it 753 u u u u 32 - 8 

a g 41 it u it u lg09 U 

It is most important when measuring the amount of ring 
water to allow for the moisture the aggregates. Th< sand 
and gravel used with one bag of cement ior a 1 :2.4 concrete 
will contain from one to four gallons of water. Add only 
enough mixing water to make up th« total amount fied. 

Users have found thai for most purpose s from five to seven 
gallons of water, including the moisture in the i 'gregates, 
gives satisfactory results, but the -mailer quantity will give 

greater strength and durability. I q gallons per 

sa of ment. including the n istur< in the sand, should b( 
sufficient ior mortars. 

Workabilii r < plasticity is i ntial to good concrete, or 

lifficulty \\\ i placing the concrete will n alt 
in Is and oth< r structural weakness To ob1 i more 



orkable < i te, vary the aggr ;ate* or proportions h ad 

of adding in' n mixing water. 

H< waters 111 il tingofth* cen nt.oftem using 

"flfc ing and will n I in i ncrefc o\ h dura ity. 

E d dng wa1 mid n< r be u 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



151 




Fig. 98. — An example of the use of Lumnite Cement for street pavements. Pavement 
can be opened to traffic within 24 hours after laying, with consequent minimizing of 
traffic delays. 



Because of its rapid hardening, LUMNITE requires all 
of its curing during the first 24 hours. 

Curing water should be applied to all exposed surfaces as 
soon as the concrete is hard enough to resist the washing effect 
of water. If applied too soon, the w r ater will combine with 
the unset or unhardened cement and thus have the same effect 
as too much mixing water. Curing water should not be applied 
too copiously at first. The curing of concrete by keeping it 
wet should be continued until 24 hours after the concrete was 
placed. 

Under average condition, curing water will be required about 
six hours after mixing. In warm, dry weather, it may be 
required before six hours and in cold, damp weather as late 
as ten or twelve hours. 

The curing water should be flowed on, sprinkled or sprayed. 
Do not cure by wet coverings, such as burlap, sawdust or 
sand, as this reduces surface strength and causes dusting. 

Steam curing or heating to hasten the hardening of LUM- 
NITE should not be used. 



152 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 



The application of curing water serves two purposes: It 
replaces the water lost from the surface by evaporation, which 
water is necessary for the hydration of the cement. It sup- 
plies water to the surface for evaporation which in turn 
accelerates the dissipation of the heat generated by the cement 
while hardening. 

The rush often necessary to forestall winter can be avoided 
by the speed possible with LUMNITE. For work that must 
be done in cold weather, LUMNITE will be found of great 
advantage because it is less subject to injury from frost for 
two reasons: First — The rapid hydration or earl}' hardening 
of LUMNITE cement (Chart No. 1) brings the concrete in a 
few hours to a point in its curing beyond the danger of frost 
attack. 



Second — This rapid hardening, a chemical action, produces 
in LUMNITE cement concrete very considerable heat (Chart 




A 6£ JAf HOVRS 

Chart No. 1 




12 18 

HOURS 

Chart No. 2 



t„™«\ ^~ ^S Number 1 is shown the extraordinarily quick gain in strength of 
tl ^ ment - £ull strength is available at the end of 24 hours. Chart Number 2 
snows High i, mperature maintained m Lummte Cen I concrete duo to chem I action 
ScoYdf th*" temperature of surrounding air. This action is helpful in concreting 



ON CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 



153 



No. 2). 
frost. 



This is an additional insurance against the attack of 



The test record in Chart No. 1 shows a compressive strength 
of LUMNITE cement mortar at twelve hours of approxi- 
mately 3500 pounds per square inch. No other hydraulic 
cement — nor any combination of cement and accelerator — 
will give compressive strength anywhere near equal to this 
at the same period. 

Chart No. 2 shows that on one job when the temperature 
of the air was 27° below r freezing, the temperature of the 
LOIXITE concrete was 16° above freezing. 

When using LUMNITE in cold weather, the aggregates 
should be free from frost. Better results are obtained if the 
concrete is at normal temperature (50 to 70° F.) when it leaves 
the mixer. 

In moderately cold weather, LUMNITE concrete needs 
protection only until the concrete takes its set, that is, becomes 
hard; and even in extremely cold weather, protection is 
necessary only during the first 24 hours. 

Heat should be used only to avoid freezing temperatures in 
the concrete. It should not be used to hum- the hardening 
of the concrete at any time. Curing water is necessary in 
cold weather only if the concrete surfaces appear to dry out 
during the first 24 hours. 

In hot weather, LUMNITE cement should be stored in a 
cool place and should be protected from the direct rays of the 
sun either in storage or when piled at the work. Heat absorbed 
by the cement will cause it to become quick setting and will 
lower its strength. 

Piles of stone and gravel in very hot weather should be 
cooled by sprinkling. 

Exposed surfaces of freshly placed concrete should be pro- 
tected from the direct rays of the sun to avoid too rapid drying 
out. 



154 



THE ATLAS HANDBOOK 




Fig. 100.— Large engine foundations made with Lumnite Cement permitting the 
installation of the heavy machinery loads within 24 hours after pouring. 



Other cements, limes, 
and soluble compounds 
LUMNITE. 



anti-freezing compounds, accelerators 
in general should not be mixed with 



LUMNITE cement mortar or concrete will bond well to 
old portland cement concrete. All of the old surface, including 
stained or weakened concrete, should be removed to good 
sound concrete. This surface should then be brushed clean 
and thoroughly moistened. The wet surface of the old 
concrete should either be dusted with LUMNITE cement 
or thinly coated with a rich, cream v grout of LUMNIT1 
cement immediately before placing the LUMNITE cement 
oncrete. 

LUMNITE top coats should not be applied over freshly 
placed portland cement concrete bases. Due to the different 
in the rate of hardening of the two c< ments. the top coat ma] 
se irate from the base. 

LIMNITE in storage should be given the same careful 
protection against the absorption of moisture 

caking as is recommended for portland 1 1 merit 



and pi ure 



INDEX 



A 

Aggregates Page 

Coarse, definition of . . . . 3 

Fine, definition of 3 

Large stones . . - 7 

Selection of 3 

B 

Beams, Reinforced . . . 40 

Kinds 42 

Safe live loads for simple beams — Table 5 44 

Bending Steel Reinforcing 48 

Bonding Concrete or Mortar to Concrete already in Place 3^ 

Box 

Measuring box 17 

Size of box for various capacities — Table 2 17 

Brick 

Quantities of mortar for laying 136 

Bridges and Culverts 125 

O 

Cellars, Storage . , * . 114 

Cement 

ATLAS Portland 144 

ATLAS-WHITE Portland . . 146 

Cement products 130 

Atlas LUA1X1TE Cement' , . . 147 

Portland 142 

Selection of . . . . . . 2 

Storing of 13 

Columns 

Forms for columns . . . 60 

Yoke spacing — Table 9 . . . . 62 

Reinforcing for columns 46 

Concrete 

Cinder 7 

Curing 35 

Fo r m s for 54 

In cold weather 31 

Placing : . . . .. 20 

To compute yardage placed — Tables 3 and 4 19 

Proportioning 8 

Slag . . . . .8 

Under water , ♦ 23 

Water-tight . 2 I 

Crushed Stone . . . • ■ « * 

Culverts and Small Bridges l^o 

Curbs and Gutters ^-^ 

Curing Concrete ........ t . . ob 

D 

Driveways ■ 122 

E 

Elevators, Grain .• 109 

Estimating - 131 



A 



F 

Page 

Finishes for Concrete Surfaces 36 

Floors 

Bonding new work to old 35 

Plain concrete floors 90 

Reinforced concrete floors 91 

Terrazzo finish 93 

Footing's 

Bearing power of various soils — Table 19 90 

Forms for Concrete 54 

Circular 81 

Column forms 60 

Flat slab floor forms 71 

For fireproofing of steel H 

Foundation and wall forms 57 

Greasing 84 

Lumber for forms ° 

Removal of forms 

Wall forms • 6 

G 

Garage, Small Reinforced Concrete 98 

Two story reinforced concrete 1 "" 

Gravel, (Pebbles) 

Bank run 

Large stones 

Gutters, Curbs 






119 



r 4 



H 

Handling Materials *3 

Hoisting Machinery and Equipment 24 

Ii 

Lumber 

Forms ° 

Table of board measure 8 

Lumnite Cement *** 

Amount of water 150 

Bonding to Portland cement concrete J|| 

Curing Jf* 

Tests }f< 

Use in cold weather io6 

M 

Materials 

Measuring materials . . 1 

Mixing and Placing Concrete I 5 

Handling concrete 20 

Hoisting machinery and equipment . . 

Hoist towers 2 

Mixer 1 



O 

Organization 

Concreting gang . 



18 



P 

ebbles .ravel) 

Selection of 5 

Placing Concrete . 20 

Placing Steel 

Produ- s Cement ... . . 130 

n 

Reinforced Concrete 

Beams and girders 40 

Columns 40 



Reinforced Concrete p 

Floor slabs f ? 

How to estimate ..WW."." Ai 

Kinds of beams WWW/ 49 

Loads 49 

Locations of reinforcing- steel W .. ....... WW ... if 

Safe live loads for simple beams — Table 5 41 

Safe live loads simple floor slabs — Table 6 ".WWW"."." 45 

Reinforcing 

Bending circular steel 49 

Bend ing rods ... . W . . W ... ... ... W 48 

Steel for reinforcement 46 

Reinforced Concrete Building Construction '.'.".'.'. W W '.'.'. *W 86 

Construction details 86 

Example of reinforced concrete building 98 

Steps and stairs ' 95 

Retaining Walls , , 128 



S 

Sand 
Handling 

How to determine amount of loam '.WW 4 

How to determine organic impurities i 

Storing * 

Washing and screening " \ 1 J 

Selection of Materails « 

Septic Tanks "" -, n f 

Sidewalks \\\ 

Silos . . . . WWW". *W Jos 

Slump Test ...."WW".*.".."."." '.*.*. '.'.'. 11 

Steel Reinforcement WWW" WWW W" 46 

Bending 49 

Placing 50 

Steps and Stairs \\\\ 95 

Stone 

Handling \\ 

Storing WWW.. "WW 14 

Storage Cellars WV. ......... . .... W ............ . 114 

Storing Materials 13 

Surface Finishes 3 

Swimming Pools . . . . 110 

T 

Ta Q nks , 103 

SeptiC lis: 

Tile, Hollow 

Quantities of mortar for laying up 136 

r JVrrazzo Floor Finish 93 

Test 

Slump t 11 

W 

Walls 

Retaining -, 9Q 

V^all Forms h% 

Water 76 

Amount of . „ 

SeLection of ......WW i 

Waterproofing Concrete Jt 

Integral Method W WW 29 

Membrane system 29 

Special surface treatment 00 

Water-tiprht Concrete 07 

Water Supply for Mixer '. 16 



TABLES 



Number Page 

1 Effect of Mixing Water on Compressive Strength 11 

2 Dimensions for Measuring Boxes 17 

3 Hourly Output of Concrete 19 

4 Computing Daily Yardage of Concrete ] 

5 Safe Loads for Beams 44 

6 Safe Loads for Slabs 4 .". 

7 Equivalent Spacing for Reinforcing Bars f 

8 Weights and Areas of Reinforcing Bars 

9 Spacing of Column Yokes i;l 

10 Slab Thicknesses for Forms T 

11 Sizes of Posts for Forms 74 

12 Size and Spacing of Form Joists 7 4 

13 Size and Spacing of Form Joists 7' 

14 Size of Form Girders 75 

15 Size of Form Girders 75 

16 Size and Quantities for Circular Forms . 83 

17 Table of Board Feet for Lumber 85 

18 Materials for Foundation Walls 89 

19 Bearing Power of Soils 90 

20 Quantities for Sidewalks and Floors 92 

21 Reinforcement for Concrete Stairs 96 

22 Reinforcement for Bottom of Rectangular Tanks 104 

23 Reinforcement for Walls of Rectangular Tanks 105 

24 Reinforcement of Walls for Circular Tanks 1 05 

25 Capacity of Silos 108 

26 Quantities for Silos 1 08 

27 Horizontal Reinforcement for Silos 1' 

28 Quantities of Atlas White Cement for Swimming Pools 112 

29 Quantities for Curbs and Gutters • 121 

30 Quantities for Roads and Pavements -• 123 

31 Quantities for One Cubic vard of Mortar 137 

32 Quantities for Laying Brick and Tile 137 

33 Quantities for One Cubic Yard of Concrete 138 

34 Weights of Aggregates 138 

35 Weight of Concrete per Cubic Foot 138 

36 Compressive Strength of Concrete 1! 

37 Covering Capacity of Mortar and Stucco 1 ; 

38 Amount of Mixing Water for Concrete 140 

39 Reinforced Concrete Lintels 141 



1 



[BLANK PAGE] 




CCA 



INTFRNATIONA 



A